business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
[Brethren of Common Love] norther german catholic clergy who talked about a mystic relationship with god
Permitted important ecclesiastical posts to be sold to the highest bidders and had often failed to enfore the req. that priests and bishops had to live in the area.
Address to the Christian Nobility of the German
book published by luther in 1520. wrote about the three walls the catholic church had constructed to protect themselves. 3 areas of mistake. 1)spiritual and temporal estates 2)only pope can interpret scripture correctly and 3)only pope can call council,
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Justification By Faith Alone
states: if you have faith in God, the God makes that person just, or worthy of salvation. God will grant salvation because God is merciful. Gods grace connot be earned by performing good works. We need to be made right by God, by faith alone.
Archbishop Albert hired John Tetzel to sell indulgences to the people. Tetzel even made up an advertising scheme for the sale of indulgences. He drew up a chart with the prices for the forgiveness of sins.
The Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, known as the 95 Theses, (from 31 October 1517) challenged the teachings of the Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in the Reformation and the birth of the Lutheran, Reformed, and Anabaptist traditions within Christianity
Emperor Maximilian I
ruled the holy roman empire from 1493-1519. married mary of Burgundy.controlled netherlands. loved battle, but was a terrible general.
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Czechoslovakian religious reformer who anticipated the Reformation
Council of Constance
the council in 1414-1418 that succeeded in ending the Great Schism in the Roman Catholic Church
Council of Basel
A general council of the Roman Catholic church held in Basel, Switz. It was called by Pope Martin V a few weeks before his death in 1431 and then confirmed by Pope Eugenius IV. Meeting at a time when the prestige of the papacy had been weakened by the Great Schism (1378-1417), it was concerned with two major problems: the question of papal supremacy and the Hussite heresy.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
France vs. Habsburgs. France tried keeping GERMANY DIVIDED. Led to slow unification of German states.
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects.
The Peasant Revolt
called for an end to serfdom and demanded other changes. However, Luther didn't support the peasants as they'd wished. Luther favored social order and respect for political authority. As the revolt grew Luther sided with the nobles, killing 10,000's of peasants and leaving many homeless.
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Diet of Augsburg
peace agreement begun in 1552 and confirmed in writing in 1555 that the princes and free cities of Germany could choose to remain Catholic or become Lutheran. The townspeople were given no choice but to follow the orders of those in power in each area. This led to religious divisions in Germany that still exist today.
member of a protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be christian and believed in the separation of church and state
Anabaptism first originated with this man. He performed the first adult baptism in Zurich in 1525. Initially a coworker of Zwingli's and an even greater biblical literalist, Grebel openly broke with that reformer. In a religious disputation in October 1523, Zwingli supported the city government's plea for a very gradual removal of traditional religious practices. His alternative group, the Swiss Brethren, was embodied in the Schleitheim Confession in 1527.
A radical movement that was made up of mostly isolated individuals distinguished by their disdain of all tradition and institutions. They believed the only religious authority was God's spirit, which spoke occasionally to everyone. Among them were several prominent Lutherans, such as Thomas Muntzer and Caspar Schwenkfeld
Protestants who denied the idea of the Holy Trinity
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Written by Max Weber. In it, he argues that the religious confidence and self-disciplined activism of the Calvinists produced an ethic that stimulated and reinforced the spirit of emergent capitalism.
Geneva "Women's Paradise"
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany.
King Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England; he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
"Defender of the Faith"
a title that Leo X bestowed on Henry VIII and later withdrew
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
Catherine of Aragon
When Henry VIII needed a son to continue the Tudor dynasty, and he found out his wife Catherine of Aragon could not give him one (only a daughter, Mary), he sought an annulment. Of course, the Catholic Church denied him one, and in return Henry VIII split England from the Catholic Church.
This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants
the second wife of Henry VIII and mother of Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Pope Clement VII
A Medici pope who refused to grant Henry VIII an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; his indecisiveness in choosing alliances led to the Sack of Rome by Charles V and marked the end of the High Renaissance in Italy.
(1485-1540) Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary THomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant.
replacement for Thomas Wolsey, he convinced Henry VIII that to get divorced from Catherine, he would need to break away from Rome. He was appointed by Henry as archbishob of canterburry : declared Henry's marriage to Catherine null/void, prepared the common book of Prayer.
Book of Common Prayer
the Anglican service book of the Church of England
Act of Succession
document passed by the Reformation Parliament in the same year as the Act of Supremacy that made Anne Boleyn's children legitimate heirs to the throne
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Six Articles (1539)
documents put forth by King Henry VIII out of anger at the growing popularity of Protestant views that reaffirmed transubstantiation, denied the Eucharistic cup to the laity, declared celibate vows inviolable, provided for private masses, and ordered the continuation of oral confession (called the "whip with six stings" by Protestants
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
Act of Uniformity
act of parliament that reasserted the book of common prayer with some catholic alterations as the chief book of the anglican church
Ignatius of Loyola
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus. He started the Jesuit movement.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
During a year of intense prayer, St. Ignatius was inspired to write this guide for spiritual perfection, which is divided into reflections and meditations meant to help the believer emulate Christ.
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
Women, Family, Education of
Art that applies naturalistic, REALIST styles and contrast with light and dark. Religious AND secular themes. Involved with ABSOLUTISM.
leading Flemish Baroque painter. In his work can be seen a synthesis of the of many Renaissance and Baroque painters especially Michelangelo, Titan, Carracci and Caravaggio. He was a smooth man of the world and diplomat.
Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
Spanish painter at the court of Philip IV (baroque and portraiture), masterpiece is Las Meninas
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Edict of Fontainebleau
document that officially revoke the edict of nantes, bringing about a direct attack on the huguenots
Edict of Chateaubriand
Henry II passed this edict to further persecute Protestants; establishes more measures against the Protestants
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars giving Spain dominance over France in Italy.
first Plantagenet King of England
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.
a European royal line that ruled in France (from 1589-1793) and Spain and Naples and Sicily
an external appearance, cover, mask
Conspiracy of Ambroise
Admiral de Coligny
Prince de Conde
In 1649 he, Louis II, temporarily restored order when forces that he led stopped the rebellion and a compromise was reached by the Parlement and the monarchy.
targeted noble families to become Calvinist supporters (including the family of Henry of Navarre(Henry IV))
wrote "On the Right of Magistrates Over Their Subjects" which said that regional rulers should have the right to be able to overthrow tyrannical central governments
This edict allowed Protestant in France to worship outside towns publicly and privately inside them.
French Wars of Religion
(1562-1598) Huguenots vs. Catholics results in Henry of Navarre (Huguenot) taking the throne as Henry IV, caused by calvinism and catholicism. aggressive in trying to win converts to their religion, went over eachothers authority. Known as the HApsburg-Valois Wars. The war started with the ruler Charles V trying to change the religion, but he was too busy fighting his opponents.
The Peace of Saint Germain en Laye
Peace treaty acknowledges the Protestant nobility, grant Huguenots religious freedom, and the rights to fortify their cities
Spanish Victory at Lepanto (1571)
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
A savage Catholic attack on Calvinist in Paris on August 24, 1572 (Saint Bartholomew's Day), followed the usual pattern. The occasion was a religious ceremony a wedding, which was supposed to help reconcile the Catholics and the Huguenots. Gaspard de Coligny was the leader of the Huguenots and was present at the wedding, but the night before, Catholic aristocratic Henry of Guise had Coligny attacked, rioting and slaughter followed. The Huguenot gentry in Paris were massacred. The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre of the Calvinists led to the War of the Three Henrys.
War of Three Henry's
This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)
Peace of Beaulieu
Passed by Henry III. Allowed Huguenots full religious and civil freedoms. Pressure from the Catholic League forced him to shorten it.
formed by the Guise; dominated the eastern half othe country for several years; 1584, allied with Spain's Philip II to attack hersey in France and deny the Bourbon Henry's legal right to inherit the throne
Margaret of Valois
Married Henry Bourbon, King of Navarre on August 18, 1572, and was forced into the marriage. She engaged in bad conduct around him, engaging in extra-marital affairs and even at one point marching an army against him. She would eventually be imprisoned by him in a castle, and their marriage would be annulled. Their marriage led to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
Henry of Navarre IV
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
son of Henry II of France and the last Valois to be king of France (1551-1589)
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
"Paris is worth the Mass"
Statement by King Henry of Navarre IV when deciding his need to convert from being Catholic to Catholicism.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants (Huguenots)
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
Commander of the Holy League from Austria, half brother to the king of Spain
-(Antoine Perrenot) headed the Council of Margaret of Parma in the Netherlands after Philip II left. -wanted to establish a centralized royal government from Madrid in the Netherlands. -He began to reorganize the Netherlands --> William of Orange and Egmont organized the Dutch nobility in opposition and threw Cardinal Granvelle out of office.
William of Nassau
prince of Orange; leader of Dutch and helps them try to break away from Philip II's Catholic rule
new royal palace built in shape of grill to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Lawrence-symbolized Philip's power and commitment to Catholic crusade
Duke of Alba
hated man by the Netherlands; chosen by Philip II to suppress the revolt in the Netherlands
Pacification of Ghent
1576; all provinces in the Netherlands would stand together under William of Orange's leadership, respect religious differences, and demand the removal of Spanish troops
Union of Brussels
Catholic and Protestant provinces joined in an alliance that tolerated religious differences but had political unity. It was the Netherland's unified opposition to Spain.
Union of Arras
Philip divided low countries after they passed the pacification of Ghent, and promised this group of southern provinces resoration of their traditional liberties, if they remained loyal to spain
Union of Utretcht
oragnized by William of Orange; northern Dutch-speaking determined to oppose Spanish rule
Twelve Year's Truce
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
Sir William Cecil
The shrewd adviser of Elizabeth I. Together, they guided a religious settlement through Parliament that prevented England from being torn asunder by religious differences.
Thirty Nine Articles of Religion
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Mary, Queen of Scots
The relative and heir of Elizabeth. Queen of Scotland and full name is Mary Stuart and known Catholic. She became the queen of England and in 1568, she escaped the problems in Scotland and flew to England to have the throne. She plotted with Philip II's ambassadors to kill Elizabeth and seize the English throne. The mother of James I, and she delayed the plans of Philip II of Spain to invade England and force a Catholic ruler on the English citizens. She signed the Scottish queen's death warrant. In 1587, Mary was beheaded.
This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops
James VI (James I of England)
Son of Mary Stuart (aka Mary,Queen of Scots). King of Scotland for 35 yrs before K of England in 1603. Descendant of H VII. Believed in absolutism, well educated, and politically shrewd. But not good at majesty and mystiques of monarchy as E I had been. Lacked common touch. When asked to wave at new subjects, declined and said would rather drop breeches "...so they can cheer my arse." Disliked as foreigner by English who resented his accent, frivolous behaviour, male lovers(Duke of Buckingham), spendthrift practices, etc. Bored parliament with lectures on absolutism and belief in divine right. "Wisest fool in Christendom" - pedantic. Threatened to "Harry the Puritans out of the land"
Queen Elizabeth I was plotted to be assinated by her cousin Mary Queen of Scots and has her beheaded for it
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
promised some mod of a consitutional government after the war of liberation. He reneged on his promise and made the unconsitutionaly based Council of State
Four Periods of War (Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, Swedish-French)
"Defenestration of Prague"
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
Protestant defensive alliance lead by Philip of Hess and John Frederick against the Diet of Augsburg and Charles V
Maximilian of Bavaria
Was duke of Bavaria, was catholic. He created the catholic league. He became an ally of Ferdinand II, but wasn't very helpful because he had other ideas (get power). He had much military success in northwestern Germany, and he defeated the Lutheran/Dutch king Christian IV and pushed him back into Denmark.
king of denmark, lutheran, tried to help protestant by leading an army into northern germany
Albrecht of Wallenstein
Protestant mercenary fighting for Catholics, assassinated by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Killed Gustavus Adolphus. Ferdinand killed him beacuse he was threatened by Wallenstein's extreme power over the territories he acquired through the war.
joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
minister of King Louis XVIII, appointed by Marie de Medici , had the real power, wanted to curb power of nobility, 32 generalities, military provinces France was divided into
Battle of Lutzen
(Swedish Phase) Sweds won against Wallenstein (Catholic) and protestantism is established in Norther Germany and Catholicism is established in Southern Germany (in this battle Gustav Adolphus dies)
Peace of Prague
treaty by which the German Protestant states reached a compromise with Ferdinand II
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic