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bi-

means two

-cele

means hernia

-desis

means to bind or tie together

fasci/o

means fascia

-ia

means condition

-ic

means pertaining to

kinesi/o

means movement

-lysis

means destruction or breaking down in disease

my/o

means muscle

-plegia

means paralysis

-rrhexis

means rupture

tax/o

means coordination

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

means tendon

ton/o

means tone

tri/o

means three

abduction

movement away from the midline of the body

achilles tendinitis

painful inflammation of the achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon

adduction

movement toward the midline of the body

adhesion

a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally and may form in muscles and internal organs as the result of an injury or surgery

anticholinergic drug

also known as antispasmodic, administered to control spasmodic activity of smooth muscles such as those of the intestine.

ataxia

an inability to coordinate the muscles in the execution of voluntary movement

atonic

means the lack of normal muscle tone

atrophy

weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue

atropine

an antispasmodic that may be adminsitered preoperatively to relax smooth muscles

becker's muscular dystrophy

a less severe illness and does not appear until early adolescense or adulthood, the progression is slower with survivial well into mid to late adulthood; only affects males.

bradykinesia

means extreme slowness in movement

cardioplegia

paralysis of the muscles of the heart

carpal tunnel syndrome

occurs when the tendons passing through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflammed and swollen

cervical radiculopathy

nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region; pressure may be caused by muscle spasms due to repetitive motions or by compression of certain vertebral disks

circumduction

the circular movement of a limb at the far end

claudication

to limp; pain in a limb while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply

contracture

an abnormal shortening of muscle tissues making the muscle resistant to stretching

dorsiflexion

bends the foot upward at the ankle

duchenne's muscular dystrophy

appears between 2 to 6 years of age, and progresses slowly, however, survival is rare beyond the late twenties; only affects males

dyskinesia

means distortion or impairment of voluntary movement as in a tic or spasm

dystaxia

also known as partial ataxia, is difficulty in controlling voluntary movement

dystonia

a condition of abnormal muscle tone

electromyography

also known as an EMG, records the strength of muscle contractions as the result of electrical stimulation

electroneuromyography

also known as nerve conduction studies, is a procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of nerve trunk carrying fibers to and from the muscle

epicondylitis

inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow

ergonomics

the study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment

fasciitis

inflammation of the fascia

fascioplasty

the surgical repair of the fascia

fasciotomy

a surgical incision of the fascia

fibromyalgia syndrome

a chronic disorder of unknown cause characterized by widespread aching pain, tender joints, and fatigue

hemiparesis

slight paralysis of one side of the body

hemiplegia

the total paralysis of one side of the body

hyperkinesia

also known as hyperactivity, means abnormally increased motor function or activity

hypertonia

a condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles with increased resistance to passive stretching

hypokinesia

abnormally decreased motor function or activity

hypotonia

a condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles with decreased resistance to passive stretching

impingement syndrome

occurs when the tendons become inflammed and get caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint

kinesiology

the study of the muscular activity and the resulting movement of body parts

muscular dystrophy

a group on inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system

myalgia

means muscle tenderness or pain

myasthenia

muscle weakness from any cause

myasthenia gravis

also known as MG, is a chronic autoimmune disease in which there is an abnormality in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of muscle weakness

myectomy

the surgical removal of a portion of muscle

myocele

the protrusion of a muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia

myoclonus

a spasm or twitching of a muscle or group of muscles

myofascial

pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia

myolysis

the degeneration of muscle tissue

myomalacia

abnormal softening of muscle tissue

myoparesis

weakness or slight muscular paralysis of a muscle

myoplasty

the surgical repair of muscle

myorrhaphy

means to suture a muscle wound

myorrhexis

the rupture of a muscle

myositis

inflammation of a muscle tissue, especially skeletal muscles

myotonia

the delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction

oblique

means slanted or at an angle

paraplegia

paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body

polymyositis

a chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles that is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy

pronation

the act of rotating the arm ot leg so the palm of the hand or sale of the foot is turned downward or backward

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four extremities

rectus

means straight

singultus

also known as hiccups, is myoclonus of the diapgragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm

spasmodic torticollis

also known as wryneck, is a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side

sphincter

a ring like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway

supination

the act of rotating the arm or leg so the palm of the hand or sale of the foot is turned forward or upward.

tardive dyskinesia

the late appearance of dyskinesia as a side effect of long-term treatment with certain antipsychotic drugs

tenalgia

pain in a tendon

tendinitis

inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint

tendonitis

also known as tendinitis

tenectomy

surgical removal of a lesion from a tendon or tendon sheath

tenodesis

means to suture the end of a tendon to bone

tenolysis

means to free a tendon from adhesions

tenonectomy

surgical removal of part of a tendon for the purpose of shortening it

tenoplasty

also known as tendoplasty, is the surgical repair of a tendon

tenorrhaphy

the surgical suturing of a divided tendon

tenotomy

also known as tendotomy, is the surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by abnormal shortening of a muscle such as strabismus (crossed eyes)

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