Integumentary system review

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Integumentary system review

This organ accounts for approximately 16% of your total body weight

Integumentary system/skin

The 2 major components of the integumentary system

The cutaneous membrane and the accessory structures

The 2 components that comprise the cutaneous membrane

Epidermis and Dermis

The loose connective tissue found deep to the dermis, also known as the superficial fascia or subcutaneous layer

Hypodermis

These structures are located primarily in the dermis and protrude through the epidermis to the skin surface

Accessory structures (hair, nails, and multicellular exocrine glands)

Three of the four threats the integument protects the underlying tissues and organs from

impact, abrasion, fluid loss, chemical attack

Production of this protects underlying tissue from UV radiation

Melanin

Production of this protects against abrasion and serves as a water repellant

Keratin

Three items excreted by integumentary glands

salts, water, and organic wastes

Storage of this occurs in the dermis and subcutaneous layer

lipids in adipocytes

The innermost epidermal layer, also known as stratum germinativum is

stratum basale

This separates the epidermis from the areolar tissue of the adjacent tissue

basement membrane

Each time a stem cell divides, one of the daughter cells is pushed superficially from the stratum basal into the

stratum spinosum

The stratum basale forms these, which extend into the dermis. Fingerprints reveal their pattern.

epidermal ridges

In thick skin, this is the order of the epidermal layers from deep to superficial

Stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

This is a brown, yellow-brown, or black pigment produces by specialized cells located in the stratum basale

Melanin

This is an orange-yellow pigment that normally accumulates in epidermal cells. It is found in a variety of orange vegetables.

Carotene

These are located in the stratum basal, squeezed between or deep to the epithelial cells. They manufacture melanin from the amino acid tyrosine.

Melanocytes

These are intracellular vesicles in which melanin is packaged.

Melanosomes

In darker skin, the melanosomes are larger and can travel more superficially into this layer of the epidermis

stratum granulosum

The dermis lies between these two layers.

epidermis/hypodermis

These are the two major layers of the dermis.

Papillary layer/ Reticular layer

The reticular layer consists of an interwoven meshwork of dense irregular connective tissue containing theses two types of fibers.

Collagen and elastic

This is an inflammation of the skin that primarily involves the papillary layer.

Dermatitis

Collagen and elastic fibers arranged in parallel bundles which resist the forces applied to the skin during normal movement form these.

Cleavage (tension) lines

Hairs are nonliving structures produced in organs called

Hair follicles

A group of sensory nerves surrounding the base of each hair follicle is called

root hair plexus

A bundle of smooth muscle cells which pull on the hair follicle when stimulated, causing the hair to stand upright is called

arrector pili muscle

This is the portion that anchors the hair into the skin and begins at the hair bulb.

Hair root

Different forms of this give hair its color.

Melanin

These glands are holocrine glands that discharge a lipid secretion into hair follicles.

Sebaceous glands (oil glands)

These are the two types of sudoriferous (sweat) glands.

Apocrine and Merocrine

These coiled, tubular glands produce a sticky, cloudy, and potentially odorous secretion into the hair follicles of the axillae (armpits), around the nipples, and in the pubic region.

Apocrine sweat glands

These coiled, tubular glands discharge their secretions directly onto the surface of the skin.

eccrine sweat glands

These are modified sweat glands in the external auditory canal.

ceruminous glands

The pale crescent portion of the nail is called this.

lunula

These give the nail its characteristic pink color.

underlying blood vessels

The visible portion of the nail covering toenail bed is called the

nail body

The distal portion of the nail that continues past the nail bed is called the

free edge

The destruction of this nail structure prevents regrowth of the nail after injury.

nail matrix

This is the first phase in the regeneration of the skin after an injury

inflammatory phase (caused by degranulation of mast cells)

In the second phase of skin regeneration, this forms at the surface to temporarily restore the integrity of the epidermis and restrict the entry of additional microorganisms

scab or blood clot

The combination of a blood clot, fibroblasts, and an extensive capillary network is called

granulation tissue (migratory phase 2)

The formation of this inflexible, fibrous, and noncellular structure completes the repair process but fails to restore the tissue to its original condition

Scar tissue (Maturation phase 4)

These harmless areas of raised fibrous scar tissue commonly develop on the upper back, shoulders, anterior chest, and earlobes.

Keloids

Another name for the cuticle that overlies the root

Eponychium

Free edge extends over

hyponychium

Calculates the area involved in a burn

Rule of Nines

Urticaria

hives

Caused by fungus

ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch

medical term for blackhead

comedo

A flat, localized change in skin color; freckles

macule

Accumulation of fluid in the papillary dermis, a localized elevation of the overlying epidermis; hives

wheal

a solid elevated area containing epidermal and papillary dermal components; mosquito bite

papule

large papules that may extend into the subcutaneous layer; cyst

nodule

blister, a papule with a fluid core; a large one is a bulla; second-degree burn

vesicle

a papule-sized lesion filled with pus; pimple

pustule

ulcer, may occur following the rupture of a vesicle or pustule; eroded sites have lost part or all of the normal epidermis; decubitis ulcer

erosion

an accumulation of dried sebum, blood, or interstitial fluid over the surface of the epidermis; seborrheic dermatitis, scabs, impetigo

crust

abnormal keratinization, thin plates of cornfield cells; psoriasis

scales

a split in the integument that extends through the epidermis and into the dermis; athlete's foot

fissure

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