Karns' Red Flashcards

162 terms by KarnsUShistory

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Federalists

This was the name given to those in favor of the Constitution and a strong central government. They were usually northern merchants who had close ties with British trade networks.

Anti-Federalists

This was the name given to those in opposition to the Constitution and in favor of strong states' rights. They usually hailed from small southern farms or western homesteads.

scorched earth

This policy was instigated by Union leader William Tecumseh Sherman. The policy required troops to burn and destroy fields, homes, and cities as they marched through Georgia. Sherman's goal was to inflict such misery on Southerners that they would be compelled to surrender. This strategy made the Civil War perhaps the fist "modern war" in that civilians and their property became targets.

Bank of the United States

This institution, supported by Alexander Hamilton, was where the national treasury would keep its deposits. It would keep the funds safe and available as loanable funds. This institution was vehemently opposed by Thomas Jefferson.

Democratic-Republicans

This was the new name for Anti-Federalists, such as Thomas Jefferson. This group sought to limit the powers of the central government in favor of greater states' rights, while the Federalists believed in a strong national government whose powers were supreme over the states.

The French Revolution

This war, which took place between 1789-1793, challenged America's sovereignty, since George Washington had to decide where her loyalties would lie. Giving the revolutionaries assistance as they had done for the Patriots during the American Revolution would strain the already delicate relationship with Britain. Initially, Americans were pleased about the overthrow of the King and Queen of France, as it seemed an extension of the ideals of the American Revolution. It became clear, however, that this was a very different kind of war that was bloody and ruthless.

Farewell Address

This speech was made by George Washington upon leaving the office of the president in 1797. In it, he warned the infant nation to remain neutral with regard to European affairs, to avoid entangling alliances, and to refrain from the formation of "factions," or political parties.

Whigs

This political party, originally known as the National Republicans, who supported Henry Clay. (As opposed to the Democrats who supported Andrew Jackson.) This party's ideology, which mirrored the long-lost platform of the old Federalist party, was specifically founded to oppose Andrew Jackson.

Anti-Masons

This new political party arose in 1832 to challenge the old two-party system.

John C. Calhoun

This outspoken man from South Carolina secretly penned "The Southern Carolina Exposition" outlining the anger of the South in the face of the "Tariff of Abominations" (Tariff of 1828). His essay expressed the Southern contention that the tariff was unconstitutional, as it severely altered trade with Europe that Southern farmers had become dependent on. He also recommended that the Southern states declare the tariff to be null and void if the federal government refused to lower the duty requirement.

Bill of Rights

This document, which was designed to protect individual freedoms and state sovereignty, was added to the Constitution to appease Anti-Federalist states that were in opposition to the Constitution and in favor of strong states' rights.

Tallmadge Amendment

This amendment was added to Missouri's bid for statehood. After the admission of Missouri as a state, this amendment would not allow any more slaves to be brought into the state and would provide for emancipation of the children of Missouri slaves at the ate of 25 years. Southerners were enraged by this abolition attempt by northern representatives and crushed the amendment in the Senate.

peculiar institution

This is the term used to describe slavery. In about 50 years, the number of African slaves in the South grew from one million to almost four million.

The Oneida Commune

This group, founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848, was meant to be the shining example of equality between all members. However, it was controversial from the beginning. The members of this group shared everything, including spouses, which many on the outside believed to be immoral. The group eventually died out, but its name lives on in the Oneida Silversmith Company, which produces glass, silver, and platewares to this day.

The Judiciary Act of 1789

This act established a Supreme court consisting of one presiding chief justice and five associate justices. It also provided for the establishment of 13 district courts and three circuit courts to appeal.

The Federalist Papers

These documents, written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, were meant to encourage ratification of the Constitution of New York. This series of 85 powerful essays urged ratifying conventions to set aside emotions when they considered the Constitution. They also refuted common doubts about the possibilities of having a central government effectively rule such a vast territory.

Electoral College

This representative body, not direct popular vote, elects the president.

John Adams

This man was the first vice president and was later defeated by Thomas Jefferson in the presidential election of 1800.

House of Representatives

This branch of government is comprised of members that reflect the population of individual states.

Senate

According to Roger Sherman, in this branch of government "each State should have one vote and no more."

Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

This act passed by Congress int he last days of Jefferson's presidency to replace the Embargo Act. This law, which expired one year from its enactment, allowed the United States to trade with foreign nations except Britain and France.

midnight judges

This term refers to the men President John Adams worked through the nights of his last days in office to appoint. These men would serve on the bench during Jefferson's administration. The appointment of these men was created by the Judiciary Act of 1801.

Eli Whitney

This man invented the cotton gin in 1793. His invention made the process of removing the seed from raw cotton much easier and faster, making cotton the number one cash crop of the South.

Knickerbockers

This New York group, which included Washington Irving, started the trend of "American" fiction by using domestic settings and character types for their stories and tales. Tales such as "Rip Van Winkle," "The legend of Sleepy Hollow," and "Twas the Night before Christmas" were all borrowed stories with an American twist.

American Party

Also known as the Know-Nothing Party, this political group was an extreme wing of the nativist movement. The group opposed immigration and the election of Roman Catholics to political office. The members of the party met in secret and would not tell anyone what they stood for, instead saying, "I know nothing" when asked.

49ers

Name for the rough group of young men that loved adventure and who moved west following the discovery of gold in 1848.

Dorothea Dix

This woman crusaded for the improvement of American mental institutions to care for the nation's mentally ill population. She crusaded relentlessly until patients were removed from prisons and other deplorable conditions and given proper treatment.

Gadsden Purchase

This transfer of property, which took place in 1853, was signed by President Franklin Pierce. The terms were that the Mesilla Valley in the southernmost desert region of New Mexico and Arizona was transferred to the United States of Mexico.

New Jersey Plan

This plan asked for equal representation, regardless of the number of citizens of a state, to a unicameral legislative body.

Virginia Plan

This plan, presented on May 29, 1787, by Edmund Randolph and delegates from larger states, called for representation in both houses to be based solely on population or proportional representation.

XYZ Affair

This event occurred when John Adams sent a delegation to Paris in 1797 in order to negotiate an agreement where by French vessels would stop seizing American Vessels. As the delegation arrived in France, they were approached by three French agents who demanded a large sum of money as a loan and an additional bribe from the American delegation just for the opportunity to speak with French officials. the Delegation refused to comply, and word of the incident quickly spread across the Atlantic. Federalists called for immediate military action. An undeclared naval war, or "quasi war," ensued.

Joseph Smith

According to Mormon tradition, the angel Moroni visited this man in his western New York bedroom one night in 1823. The angel told him a sacred text that was inscribed on gold plates that had been buried by the fabled "Lost Tribe of Israel" nearby and revealed to him its exact location. By 1830, this man had translated the sacred text and formally organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints or, informally, the Mormon Church. The followers of Mormonism were ostracized by their surrounding community, and left New York to West.

American Antislavery Society

This organization, founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison, strove to combat the pro slavery contingent. Garrison's radicalism soon alienated many moderates within the movement when the claimed that the Constitution was a pro slavery document. As a result, the movement split into the Liberty Party, which accepted the membership of women, and the Foreign Antislavery Society, which did not accept female participation.

transcendentalists

This group embodied the Romantic spirit of the United States by spurning materialism and embracing self-reliance. They settled in Massachusetts in 1841 to ttry to live the lifestyle espoused by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Brook Farm was a communal effort to practice transcendentalism that collapsed in 1849 due to massive debts.

American Temperance Society

This organization, created by revival preachers in the mid-1820s, strove to encourage drinkers to limit their intake of alcohol and then eventually take a vow of abstinence.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

This American author's book, The Scarlet Letter, raised questions about religion and society.

Henry David Thoreau

This transcendentalist writer spoke throughout the country and wrote scathing essays about the state of man. Spurning materialism and embracing self-reliance, he encouraged Americans to embrace the beauty and truth of the natural world. This man's best known book, Walden, chronicled his self-initiated experiment where he excused himself from society by living in seclusion in the woods for two years. Perhaps more influential was his essay "On Civil Disobedience," in which he advocated passive resistance as a form of justifiable protest.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

This transcendentalist writer encouraged the forging of a unique American identity as he traveled across the United States delivering lectures. Spurning materialism and embracing self-reliance, this man encouraged Americans to shun wealth and want and embrace the beauty and truth of the natural world. A distinctive American culture, divorced from European influence, had already begun to bloom before this man's influence. American artists, writers, and architects had started to show a unique style that would express the growth and pride of the growing nation.

Napoleonic War

This war consisted in large part of the British and French punishing each other by issuing decrees that would blockade trade into one another's ports.

Battle of Tippecanoe

This battle, which took place in present-day Indiana prior to the War of 1812, caused many Congressmen in the frontier to feel justified in their call for war. General William Henry Harrison sought to break up a large native confederacy that a pair of Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and the Prophet, had organized in the face of an American advance westward. General Harrison and his men successfully fought back a surprise attack and subsequently burned the tribal settlement at this location.

Sarah and Angelina Grimke

These vehement abolitionists voiced their opposition to male dominance, thus starting the dialogue about women's roles and plight of women in the United States.

Frederick Douglass

This man published The North Star, an antislavery journal that chronicled the ugliness of slavery for the readers, and argued that the Constitution could be used as a weapon against slavery. Thus, he argued for legal means of fighting slavery, in contrast to some other radical abolitionists, who advocated varying degrees of violence to achieve abolition.

Sojourner Truth

This woman, along with Harriet Tubman, helped fugitive slaves flee slave states or the United States through an elaborate network called the Underground Railroad.

Pinckney Treaty

This treaty settled the boundaries and navigation rights along the Mississippi River. It also provided for the right of deposit at the Port of New Orleans. In addition, it essentially removed Spain as a threat to further American Settlement in the West. This treaty was unanimously ratified by Congress in 1796.

Oregon Trail

This dangerous path, which was originally used by only a few, was used by thousands int he mid-1840s. It took some travelers up to six months to reach their destination at the end of this path.

apologists

This group, led by George Fitzhugh, spoke of the happy lives of Southern slaves who were clothed, fed, and housed by benevolent slave owners.

Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too!

This slogan was used in the campaign of William Henry Harrison, a war hero, and John Tyler. The pair won, easily defeating martin Van Buren in the 1840 election.

nativists

This group was part of a movement against the influx of Irish and German immigrants. These Anglo-Americans believed that they were really the only true "Americans," and railed against the rights of those who had foreign blood.

Appomattox Court House

It was at this location on April 9, 1865, that the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia officially surrendered.

greenbacks

Currency was used in place of gold during wartime.

ironclads

Term used to describe the naval ships that were first launched in 1862. Examples of this type of ship were the CSS Merrimac and the USS Monitor. These ships replaced wooden ships, which had previously fleeted the navy.

Bear Flag Republic

This is the name that California called itself after it had been declared independent following the near-end of the Mexican War in September of 1847. John C. Fremont was its leader.

The Homestead Act of 1862

This act granted 160 to any family that would agreed to farm it for at least five years.

"On Civil Disobedience"

Influential essay written by Henry David Thoreau that advocated passive resistance as a form of justifiable protest. This essay would inspire later social movement leaders Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Underground Railroad

An elaborate network that helped fugitive slaves flee the United States or at least to reach free states.

Seneca Falls

This location in New York was the sit of a meeting with feminist leadership, including Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony. Here, the Declaration of Sentiments was drafted. It declared that "all men and women are created equal" and demanded true universal suffrage to include females as well as males.

perfectionism

This belief system promoted the idea that humankind could have a life that resembled the life of Jesus. It also included the belief that humans could obtain this level through faith, hard work, education, and temperance.

The Convention of 1800

This meeting took place between American envoys and French foreign minister Talleyrand and Napoleon. The goal of the meeting was to negotiate a settlement to prevent full-scale war between the United States and France. The meting ended with the termination of the Franco-American Alliance, an agreement whereby the United States would pay for damages inflicted on French vessels, and the avoidance of an all-out war with France.

Fugitive Slave Law

Law designed to re-enslave those slaves who had made it to freedom. IN addition, the law denied legal rights to captured blacks and sentenced whites who harbored fugitives to heavy fines or jail time.

strict constructionist

This term describes on who believes in the strict interpretation of the document. This term described Thomas Jefferson in relation to the Constitution.

elastic clause

This clause in the Constitution granted Congress "implied powers" to pass laws that were "necessary and proper" to run the country effectively. Alexander Hamilton used this clause to argue in support of the creation of the Bank of the United States.

John Marshall

This man was not only Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, but he was also Thomas Jefferson's cousin and a staunch Federalist. During his career, he had ruled a law passed by Congress to be unconstitutional, thereby establishing the precedence of judicial review. In this and subsequent decisions by his court, the power of the Supreme Court increased--it could check the authority of both the legislative and executive branches.

Tecumseh and the Prophet

These Shawnee brothers organized a large native confederacy to prevent the American advice westward.

Maine Law

This law, which was brought to the political forum by Neal S. Dow, completely prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages in this state. Soon after, some 12 other states would pass similar laws either severely limiting the sale of alcohol or prohibiting it altogether.

Nat Turner's Rebellion

This uprising, led by a Virginia slave in 1831, resulted in the deaths of over 50 white men, women, and children and the retaliatory killings of hundreds of slaves.

Battle of New Orleans

This battle, which was led by General Andrew Jackson, thwarted the English attempt to control the Mississippi River. Interestingly, the battle--while an impressive victory for the Americans--was completely unnecessary, as it was fought two weeks after the signing of the peace treaty that ended the war.

write of habeas corpus

This legal action means that the federal government cannot hold an individual in jail without levying charges against him or her.

Era of Good Feeling

This time period, named by a U.S. newspaper, was ascribed to James Monroe's presidency. Although this period was noted for tis renewed sense of independence and national pride, it was not always as harmonious as the optimistic name. The period was rife with tension regarding tariffs, slavery, and political power within the National Republican.

The American System

This system, devised by Henry Clay, included the re-charter of the Bank of the United States, tariffs like the one passed in 1816, and the building up the infrastructure such as turnpikes, roads, and canals. Congress had already created the Second Bank of the United States and established the first protective tariff, but President Monroe had misgivings about the plan for internal improvements. Monroe felt thae Constitution did not provide for the federal government to allocate monies to fund public works projects within the states, so he repeatedly vetoed bills regarding the building of roads or canals.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

This treaty, signed in February 1848, ended the Mexican War and granted California and most of the Southwest (current-day New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada) to the United States. The American government agreed to pay war reparations in the sum of $15 million to the Mexican government. After bitter debate over the expansion of slavery, the treaty was ratified and the war was officially over.

Great Compromise

This proposal by Roger Sherman states: "The proportion of suffrage int he first branch should be according to the respective numbers of free inhabitants and that in the second branch or Senate, each State should have one vote and no more." Also known as the Connecticut Compromise, this meant large states were appeased by the House of Representatives, comprised of membership that was equal regardless of state population.

Declaration of Sentiments

Document drafted by the feminist leaders who met in Seneca Falls, New York, to discuss the plight of women in the United States. This document closely modeled the Declaration of Independence by declaring that "all men and woman are created equal" and demanding true universal suffrage to include females as well as males.

The Star-Spangled Banner

This song, written by Francis Scott Key while he was a prisoner of a British ship in 1814, put new words to an old drinking song. It was written to show his love for his country, especially following a night when despite constant bombing by the British, Fort McHenry held strong.

Walden

This book, written by Henry David Thoreau, chronicled his self-initiated experiment where he excused himself form society by living in seclusion in the woods for two years.

spoils system

Andrew Jackson was a proponent of this system. He would appoint those who support his campaign with government positions. Many felt that his practice bred corruption and tainted the political process.

Kitchen Cabinet

This was the term used to describe Jackson's unofficial cabinet, to which many of his friends were appointed. This was a negative term created by critics who lamented that the group of advisors did not have to answer to Congress as they were not "official cabinet officers."

Horace Mann

This man was the leader of the movement to reform the public school system in the United States. Before the 1840s, compulsory school attendance was not common. He was instrumental in spreading state-funded free public education for youngsters across the country.

Harriet Tubman

This woman, along with Sojourner Truth, helped fugitive slaves flee slave states or the United States through an elaborate network called the Underground Railroad.

Andrew Jackson

This general led the Southern troops against the British in 1814. He and his men were able to cut a swath through the British from Alabama to New Orleans and thwart the English attempt to controlt he Mississippi River at the Battle of New Orleans. As a result, this man emrged as an American war hero.

Republican Party

This new political party included Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, and Know-Nothings, all from either the North or West. This party was opposed to the expansion of slavery and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Despire the loss of the election of 1856 to Democrat James Buchanan, members of this party made a great showing by running the exciting Californian John Fremont, who managed to winn 11 of 16 free states in the Electoral College.

Burr Conspiracy

This secession plot arouse in 1806. The plan was to wrest Mexico from the Spaniards and join it with the Louisiana Territory to create a new country to the west. The plot was reported to President Jefferson, who called for the plotter's immediate arrest and trial for treason. Chief Justice John Marshall sat on the bench of the jury trial, where the prosecution could produce no credible witnessess. The plotter was acquitted and freed.

border ruffians

Name of the group of proslavery farmers from nearby Missouri who settled small areas along the border in order to vote in the election that would determine the slavery issue for Kansas. As Northerners learned of this group setting up homesteads, they decided to fight back. Henry Ward Beecher and other abolitionists paid the way for antislavery settlers to travel and set up homes in Kansas.

The Hartford Convention

This meeting was comprised of a radical group of New England Federalists which met to discuss ways to demand the federal government pay them for the loss of trade due to the Embargo Act, Macon's Bill No.2, and the War of 1812. The group also discussed possible amendments to the Constitution that included one-term limit for the president; a two-thirds vote for an embargo, declaration of war, and admission of new states; and an end to the Three-Fifths Compromise.

The Southern Carolina Exposition

This document, written by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, outlined the anger of the South in the face of the "Tariff of Abominations" (Tariff of 1828). This essay expressed the Southern contention that the tariff was unconstitutional, as it severely altered trade with Europe on which Southern farmers had become dependent.

The Adams-Onis Treaty

This treaty provided for the United States purchase of Florida from Spain in 1819. It also gained Spanish assurances to abandon its claims in the Oregon Territory.

The Rush-Bagot Treaty

This treaty, signed in 1817, provided for the disarmament of the Great Lakes and the frontier borders and created the longest unfortified border in the world between the United States and Canada.

Cult of Domesticity

Belief based on the fact that in many American homes, it was no longer necessary for the woman to work both the fields and the home. In this belief, women's roles were clearly defined as homemakers and mothers.

Judiciary Act of 1801

This act passed before the Congress was to be turned over to the majority Republicans. It created 16 new judgeships.

Berlin Decree

This decree by Napoleon in 1806 was an attempt to cut Britain off from the rest of the world and also meant that American ships traveling to Britain to deposit goods would get caught in the Napoleonic War.

Orders in Council

this was the British response to Napoleon's Berlin
Decree. It retaliated against France by closing all ports under French control-any American ship traveling to mainland Europe that did not stop first in Britain would be confiscated.

Milan Decree

This 1807 decree by Napoleon authorized his navy to seize any foreign ship traveling to Europe that had first stopped in Britain, even though the British Orders in Council stated that any American ship traveling to mainland Europe that did not first stop in Britain would get confiscated. In other words, American shippers could continue trade at great risk, but reap great rewards in profits.

Trail of Tears

This trek occurred in 1838 as a result of the government forcibly removing the Cherokee form the state of Georgia. The name of the trek was a result of the fact that some 4,000 Cherokee tribesmen died en route to Oklahoma.

Specie Circular

This issuance by Andrew Jackson required the payment for purchase of all federal lands be made in hard coin, or specie, rather than banknotes. This caused the value of paper money to plummet, and eventually led to the panic of 1837.

Gibbons v. Ogden

This court case of 1824 ruled that the state of New York could not issue a monopoly to a steamboat company because it was in direct conflict with the commerce clause of the Constitution, which gives the federal government control of interstate commerce. Prior to this decision, Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall continued to overturn laws and provisions states enacted to challenge the authority of the federal government.

Panic of 1837

This financial crisis came about because federal funds were removed from the Bank of the United States and deposited in various state banks, which opponents dubbed "pet banks." As a result, domestic prices for goods and land jumped dramatically and threatened to destroy the economy. Jackson then issued the Specie Circular, which required the payment for purchase of all federal lands be made in hard coin, or specie, rather than banknotes. This caused the value of paper money to plummet, and eventually led to this financial crisis.

Tariff of 1828

New Englanders pushed for this tax to protect themselves from foreign competitors. It was referred to as the "Tariff of Abominations" by John C. Calhoun.

Tariff of 1832

In order to appease the South, Andrew Jackson sought to lower this tariff from the outrageous 45 percent duties to a mere 35 percent. This change did little to placate the Southerners. South Carolina nullified this tariff and threatened to secede from the union if Jackson attempted to collect the duties by force. Jackson did make military preparation, but stopped short of sending troops to South Carolina.

Force Bill

This bill, which Andrew Jackson encouraged Congress to pass, gave the president the power to use military force to collect tariffs if the need arose.

The Missouri Compromise

These bills, proposed by Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1820, allowed for the admission of Missouri as a slave state, while also admitting Maine as a free state, to maintain the balance int he Senate. In addition, slavery would not be permitted in states admitted above the 36 30' line (with exception of Missouri, which lay above the line). The compromise was accepted by both North and South and lasted for 34 years. Clay, "the Great Compromiser," had temporarily resolved the intense section issue of slaver.

Indian Removal Act

This act, which was signed into law in 1830, provided for the immediate resettlement of Native Americans living in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and present-day Illinois. These tribes were considered "civilized"-- a few of them had written alphabets, practiced democracy, and had converted to Christianity. By 1835, some 100,000 Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Indians had been forcibly removed from their homelands.

corrupt bargain

this term is used to describe the following incident: The election of 1824 pitted four candidates from the Republican Party to vie for the presidency: John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, and Andrew Jackson. In the end, Jackson won the popular vote, but no one had a majority of electoral votes. It was left up for the House of Representatives to choose the president. Clay, a key opponent of Jackson's, used his pull to push Adams to the front of the pack. President Adams then appointed Clay as his Secretary of State.

compact theory

this belief is based on the idea that the federal government was formed because of compact between states.

Charles G. Finney

This Presbyterian minister appealed to his audience's sense of emotion rather than their reason. His "fire and brimstone" sermons became commonplace in upstate new York, where listeners were instilled with the fear of Satan and an eternity in Hell. He insisted that parishioners could save themselves through good works and as steadfast faith in God. This region of New York became known as the "burned-over district," because this minister preached of the dangers of eternal damnation across the countryside.

freedman

The name given tot he former slaves who fled to the North and often fought for the Union Army.

New York Draft Riots

These uprisings occurred as an indirect result of the Union's first federal conscription law to draft young men to military service in 1863. The draft, as well as the Emancipation Proclamation, which had conscripted soldiers believing they had been duped into fighting a war fro emancipation instead of merely for the union's preservation, caused angry Irish-Americans to react violently. In the end, some 500 people were killed, and whole city blocks were destroyed by fire.

Anaconda Plan

the firs of a four-part plan, devised by Union General Winfield Scott in 1861, to wear down the Confederacy. In this first phase, the Union Navy would blockade all Southern ports of entry, cutting the Confederates off from supplies and trade.

Lewis and Clark `

These explorers were appointed by President Jefferson to explore the vast new United States territory, beginning in 1804. The group traveled a trail that bean in St. Louis, Missouri, an took them to the Pacific Ocean on the coast of Oregon. They returned to St. Louis in 1806. By keeping meticulous field notes and drawings for the flora and fauna, as well as detailed accounts of encounters with native tribes, these explorers expanded America's knowledge of the new territory and warned of the hardships settlers would face moving west.

The Constitutional Union Party

This political party, formed from Know-Nothings, Whigs, and moderates, was concerned that if Lincoln won the election of 1860, that the South would secede and that would mean the end of the Union. As a result, this party chose John Bell of Tennessee as their candidate and hoped to pull enough votes from the Republicans to keep Lincoln from winning and thus the cotton states of the South from seceding.

Sam Houston

This man led Texans in revolt against Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna, the military dictator of Mexico who attempted to force Texans to abide by Mexican laws. This man declared Texas a republic independent of Mexico. At present-day San Antonio, Santa Anna's forces attacked the Alamo, killing Americans station there, and marched to the San Jacinto River where a force led by this man route the Mexican forces and captured Santa Anna. The Mexican dictator was forced to sign a decree granting independence to the Republic of Texas.

Copperheads

The name of Northern and Western Democrats in Congress who wished for an end to what they deemed an "unjust war." They were named after the poisonous snake of the same name due to the venom they spit as they spoke. They did not approve of President Lincoln's broad use of executive power and called for an immediate end to the Civil War.

The Shakers

This group, led by "Mother" Ann Lee, was known for their "shaking" as they felt the spirit of god pulse through them during church services. They eventually died out due to their forbidding sexual relations.

Emancipation Proclamation

This proclamation, issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863, declared freedom of all slaves in Confederate states. However, it only applied to slaves living in these Confederate states; slavery in the Border States was still legal. Despite its limitations, the proclamation did much to bolster the morale of Union Troops and supporters at home. But it was not without its critics. Many int he North, particularly those in the Border States, felt that Lincoln had gone too far. Nonetheless, the next great step toward freeing the slaves had been taken.

Thirteenth Amendment

This amendment calls for the abolishment of slavery. President Lincoln worked tirelessly to garner enough votes in Congress to secure passage of what would become this amendment to the Constitution. Sadly, Lincoln was assassinated before this was ratified in 1865. With this ratification, this amendment increased by the number of recognized citizens of the United States by about four million. These newly freed African Americans now had to find a place in the American social structure.

The Morrill Land Grant of 1862

This act gave federal lands to states for the purpose of building schools that would teach agriculture and technical trades.

The North Star

This antislavery journal, published by Frederick Douglass, chronicled the ugliness of slavery for readers, and argued that the Constitution could be used as a weapon against slavery.

Tripolitan wars

This war, fought between 1801 and 1805, started when Barbary pirates in North Africa seized U.S. ships traveling in the Mediterranean. Presidents Washington and Adams had paid North African nations a "protection fee" to reduce the number of times U.S. ships would be seized. Once Thomas Jefferson took office, the leader of Tripoli demanded more money. Jefferson refused, sending naval ships to stop the pirates, resulting in a four-year fight. The force was able to put a dent in the work of pirates and gained the United States credibility overseas.

Wilmot Proviso

This amendment, proposed by a Representative of the same name, aimed to forbid slavery in the new land acquired by the war in Mexico. The final bill passed through the House but failed in the Senate. More importantly, this amendment signaled the start of an even deeper crisis that would pit the North against the South over issues of slavery, state's rights, and representations.

The Tariff of 1816

This tax was created to prevent cheap British goods from flooding the market and injuring American manufacturing; James Monroe urged Congress to pass his tax to protect industry. It imposed a 20 percent duty on all imported goods and became the first truly "protective tariff" in American history. However, the passage of the tax did not go over well with all sectors of the United States.

Compromise of 1850

This series of laws, drafted by Henry Clay, were a method of averting a national crisis as a result of conflicting beliefs between radical Southerners and other states. This series of laws would admit California as a free state, divide Mexican cession into the New Mexico and Utah Territories with popular sovereignty serving as the basis for determining slave status, ban the slave trade in Washington DC, enact a stricter Fugitive Slave Law, and give Texas monetary compensation for that state's willingness to forgo its claims to part of New Mexico's territory.

The Panic of 1819

This crisis was caused when the Second Bank of the United States (BUS) over speculated on Western land and attempted to curb inflation by pulling back on credit for state banks. Hit hard by the decreased demand for goods abroad and a trade deficit with Britain, the BUS demanded payment from banks in hard specie. Unfortunately, frontier banks had limited amounts of currency and could not pay back in specie. The currency in circulation became dangerously low. The BUS demanded that Western banks foreclose on farmers that could not pay debts, resulting in a rise of landless farmers.

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

This law came to the forefront when Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed to divide the Nebraska Territory into two regions. Because both regions lay above the 36 degree 30' line of demarcation stipulated by the Missouri Compromise, this could theoretically open these lands to slavery. Passage of this bill would mean the repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Douglas pushed this bill through both houses and it was signed into law by President Pierce in 1854. Northern Democrats believed the Union had "sold out" to the South with regard to the slavery issue.

Macon's Bill Number 2

In 1810, this bill sought to lift trade restrictions against Britain or France, but only after those nations agreed to honor U.S. neutrality. Napoleon happily repealed his Berlin and Milan Decrees in hope so stirring up tensions between the United States and Britain. Madison issued Britain an ultimatum-- remove the Orders in Council within three months, or U.S. trade restrictions would continue. Madison had been duped, however, by Napoleon, who never intended on honoring his promise to remove the restrictions on shipping and trade.

Antietam

Union commander General McClellan, who had advanced knowledge of Confederate battle plans, cut Confederate General Lee off at this battle, which occurred in September 1862. It was the bloodiest day of the war, as more than 22,000 men were lost or wounded. The battle was a turning point of the war-- it kept the confederates from gaining much needed foreign assistance from Britain and France. In addiction, President Lincoln now had the "victory" he had been waiting for. He promptly issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 23,1862.

The Pacific Railway Act of 1862

This act approved the building of transcontinental railroad that would utterly transform the West by linking the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

Lecompton Constitution

This document was drafted by a group of Missourians who traveled across the border to Kansas and organized a pro slavery government hoping to create a new state.This document would only allow citizens to vote for the document with or without slavery. If citizens voted for no slavery, the rights of slaveholders in the territory were already protected. Federally, President Buchanan supported the document, while Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas and others in the Senate loudly opposed. It was decided to remit the Constitution back to Kansas for a re vote.

Dred Scott v. Sanford

The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Taney made a ruling on this 1857 case that said the 36 degree 30' provision of the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional that all African Americans were not citizens, making them ineligible to sue in federal court. The opinion also explained that an individual's property could not be denied him under the U.S. Constitution. Therefore, the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which forbade slavery north of the 36 degree 30' line, was unconstitutional because it stripped slave owners of their rightful property once they moved northward.

Three-Fifths Compromise

This arrangement started with a conflict regarding geographic proportions. Southern delegates lived in large states with equally large populations of slaves who were not considered citizens. Southerners argued that although slaves could not vote, they still had to be managed by the state and should count as part of the populations. Northerners, some of whom disliked the practice of slavery, agreed to this compromise in exchange for the passage of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. The result-- southern slaves would be counted as a fraction of the citizens.

popular sovereignty

This concept indicated that the issue of slavery would be decided by the citizens of the territory.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

This woman wrote Uncle tom's Cabin in 1852. The novel gained fast notoriety in the North and scorn from the South. In essence, her novel galvanized more Northerners to believe that slavery was morally wrong, while southerners grew in their convictions to protected it.

Freeport Doctrine

This document, written by Stephen A. Douglas, stated that communities would have to pass and enforce laws to protect the institution of slavery for it to exist. His document caused an even deeper divisions within the Democratic Party, as Southerners felt he had not done enough to support the Dred Scott decision. While his popular sovereignty stance won him the senatorial seat, Douglas injured his chances of winning the presidency in the election of 1860.

Harper's Ferry

Location of an attack that occurred at a federal arsenal in Virginia. Abolitionist John Brown, who had taken part in the Pottawatomie Creek massacre, and his followers staged a raid here. Brown, Claiming he was given orders right from God, hoped to arm slaves in the surrounding plantations to overthrow the whites and create a free black state. In October 1859, Brown and his gang seized the arsenal and managed to hold off the Virginia militia for two days. They were finally captured, tried for treason, and hanged.

Confederate States of America

Just four days after the 1860 election results were tallied and Abraham Lincoln was announced the winner, the South Carolina legislature voted to secede from the Union. Within the next six weeks, six more Deep South states (Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas) decided to join South Carolina. A meeting of these states was called in February 1861 and the result was this "new" country, which named Jefferson Davis as its president.

Neutrality Proclamation of 1793

This proclamation came about because of Alexander Hamilton's desire to maintain trade relationships with the British. Although Thomas Jefferson was a sympathizer to the French and wanted to uphold the provisions of Franco-American Alliance, President George Washington made this proclamation. AS a result, the French and the British set out to seize American ships crossing the Atlantic,taking cargo and impressing sailors into military service. These seizures violated the proclamation forcing Washington to send Chief Justice John Jay in 1794 to negotiate.

The Monroe Doctorine

This is the modern-day name for an address made by James Monroe in 1823. It quickly became the basis of U.S. foreign policy from that point forward. The policy called for "nonintervention" in Latin America and the end of European colonization. It was more or less designed to check the power of Europe in the Western hemisphere and flex the muscles of the young nation. The united States increasingly enforced the policy throughout the late-nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Ulysses S. Grant

This Union general fought his way through Kentucky and Tennessee, and participated in a bloody battle at Shiloh in April 1862. By the spring of 1863, he controlled the city of New Orleans and almost the entire Mississippi River region. To complete the removal of the Confederates, he launched attack at Vicksburg. Union forces lay Siege for seven weeks on the fortified city. Another turning point for the Union, it now controlled the length of the Mississippi River and the surrounding regions. It was this general who surrounded General lee when he surrendered.

Robert E. Lee

This military genius and general in the Confederate Army engaged Union troops in the Second Battle of Bull Run and then defeated Burnside at the Battle of Fredericksburg. The following year, he kept his men fighting vigorously int he eastern United States. IN a last ditch effort to invade the North, garner foreign support, and force the Union to sue for piece, he invaded of Pennsylvania while Union forces kept close tabs on the Confederates. The armies converged at Gettysburg. This general could not recover from losses here and retreated back. Ultimately, he agreed to surrender.

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

This court case came as a result of the fact that by 1835, some 100,000 Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Indians had been forcibly removed from their homelands. This particular nation refused to go down without a fights, and took their case against the state of Georgia to the Supreme Court. In 1831, this court case ruled that the tribe was not a sovereign foreign nation and therefore had no right to sue for jurisdiction over its homelands.

Treaty of Ghent

This treaty, which ended the War of 1812, was signed by American envoys and British diplomats in Belgium in December 1814. The provisions of the treaty provided for the end of the fighting, the return of any conquered territories to their rightful owner, and the settlement of a boundary between Canada and the United States had been set before the war. Essentially, the war ended in a draw--neither side gained any concessions, restitution, or apologies. Most Americans were pleased, however, because they fully expected to lose territory.

Brigham Young

After Joseph Smith was murdered by a mob in Illinois, this new Mormon leader collected his flock and moved further west into Deseret--what is now the state of Utah. The Mormons remained outsiders due to their religious practices and beliefs, notably the practice of polygamy (having multiple wives). It was only after the church agreed to forbid the controversial practice that Utah was allowed to become an official state.

Whiskey Rebellion

This even took place as a result of the tax which was imposed on the whiskey backwoods farmers distilled to supplement their incomes. Some of these farmers violently protested the tax by tarring and feathering tax collectors or destroying public buildings. President Washington immediately sent a militia to quell this protest.

Bull Run

At this battle, which took place in July 1861, Confederate troops stood at the ready for the oncoming attack from federal troops. At the beginning, the Union forces seemed to be gaining the upper hand. But Confederate men led by General 'Stonewall" Jackson soon arrived, sending the Union troops scrambling back to Washington DC.

Bleeding Kansas

Name given to the area where fighting broke out among the pro- and antislavery factions at the border

Report on Public Credit

This document, written by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, set out to repair the nation's failing financial health. Written in 1790, it explained how monetary and fiscal policy should favor the rich so that their good fortune would be spent within the economy and thus stimulate domestic growth.

Liberty Party

This organization came about as a splinter from the American Antislavery Society, which was deemed too radical. This group accepted the membership of women, the Foreign Antislavery Society did not.

Church of Jesus Chris of Latter-Day Saints

More commonly known as the Mormon Church, This group was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830.

Revenue Act of 1789

This act placed 8 percent tariff on imports, a rate much lower than Alexander Hamilton had desired.

Erie Canal

This waterway, completed in 1825 with funds provided by the state of New York, linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River. Suddenly, the cost of shipping dropped dramatically and led to the growth of port cities along the length of the canal and its terminal points.

Report on Public Manufactures

This document, written by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1791, promoted the industrialization of the United States and advocated strong protective tariffs to protect infant industry.

Essex Junto

Aaron Burr joined this was a small group of radical Federalists. They were plotting for a New England state secession from the Union

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