Marraccini 2.01 MaWD

41 terms by mmarraccini 

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Graphics

Anything on a page that is not actual text, from simple line drawings to fully active images

Color Depth

Refers to the number of colors per pixel that can be displayed in an image

Compression

How an image is saved in order to reduce the file size

Lossy Compression

Alters and/or eliminates some data

Lossless Compression

Reduces size without losing any pixel data

Portability

How easily you can open, modify, and view files

Transparency

The background of an image is "see through" so that the graphic can blend into the background

Raster Graphics

Also called bitmap graphics, images composed of grids of pixels that have a fixed resolution and cannot be resized without losing image quality

GIF

Graphics Interchange Format
Standard format for web animation, supports transparency, lossless compression, supports 256 colors.

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group
Does not support animation, does not support transparency, high quality, larger size than GIF, lossy compression, supports 16 M colors.

BMP

Bitmap
Does not support animation or transparency, uncompressed, supports 256 colors, not well suited for transferring files across the internet or for print publications.

PNG

Portable Network Graphics
Does not support animation, supports transparency, lossless compression, supports 256 colors.

TIFF

Tagged Image File Format
Does not support animation or transparency, available in compressed and uncompressed formats; compressed is advised, supports 16 M colors.

Vector Graphics

Composed of mathematical formulas that define lines, shapes, and curves. Can be edited by moving points called nodes, can be 2D or 3D, and are edited in drawing programs. Used for architechtural

Characteristics of Vector Graphics

Can be edited by moving points called nodes
Can be 2D or 3D
Edited in drawing programs

Uses of Vector Graphics

Graphics that will be scaled or resized
Architectural drawings, CAD programs, flow charts, logos, cartoons, clip art, internet websites, fonts and specialized text effects

Advantages of Vector Graphics

Resolution independent- regardless of how much the image is enlarged or reduced, the image definiton and quality remain the same
Small file sizes- easily transferred over the internet

Disadvantages of Vector Graphics

Lower color quality than bitmap images
Not good for photographic images

Common Vector File Formats

AI, CDR, DXF, EPS, SVG, WMF

AI

Adobe Illustrator

CDR

Corel Draw

DXF

AutoCAD

EPS

Encapsulated Postscript (meta graphic)

SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics

WMF

Windows Metafile, common format for windows clipart

Raster vs. Vector

1. Vector graphics do not degrade in quality when scaled (resized)
2. Raster graphics become pixilated when enlarged
3. Vector graphics are easier to color than raster graphics
4. Vector file are smaller than raster files
5. Vector images can easily be converted to raster images but raster images are hard to convert to vector images.
6. Raster graphics are better for realistic images and photographs

Types of Images- Clip Art

Premade graphics that are available online and in many software packages; may be raster or vector

Types of Images- Photographs

Raster images that contain millions of colors

Types of Images- Art Work

Computer created drawing or painting; may be raster or vector

Resolution

The amount of detail stored for an image; the higher the resolution, the higher the level of detail in the image.

PPI

Pixels per inch; the number of pixels in one inch, more pixels per inch means better image quality but larger file size. Images that will be displayed on a monitor or screen have a lower resolution because most monitors or screens do not support very high resolution.

DPI

Dots per inch; the number of dots or ink or toner per inch on a printed image. The lower the DPI the less detailed the image. Images that will be printed need a higher resolution in order to print clearly without pixelation or blurriness.

Aspect Radio

Relationship of an object's width to its height

Cloning

Copying part of an image and using it to replace unwanted parts of the image

Cropping

Removing part of an image.
The original image retains the same file size.
The cropped image can be saved as a new object.

Filters

Used to apply special effects to an image

Gradients

Filling an object with a smooth transition from one color to another.

Layering

Compiling multiple pictures or objects together into one image.
Layers can be turned on or off.
Elements can be colored, layered, and resized individually.

Patterns and Textures

Patterns are raster graphics applied as a fill.
Textures are used to create filters and backgrounds.

Rotating

Pivoting an object around it's center point.

Transparency

Removing the background color of a raster image making it "see-through" in order to allow the image to blend in with its background.

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