Microbiology Talaro 8th ed. Ch 7

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Micro Test 2

Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism:

Macronutrients

Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure:

Trace elements

An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is called a/an:

Growth factor

An important mineral ion of the cytochrome pigments of cellular respiration is:

Iron

An important mineral ion that is a component of chloroplasts and stabilizer of membranes and ribosomes is:

Magnesium

The term phototroph refers to an organism that

Gets energy from sunlight.

The term autotroph refers to an organism that

Uses CO2 for its carbon source.

The term heterotroph refers to an organism that

Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs

The term chemotroph refers to an organism that

Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds

The methanogens, producers of methane gas, require environments that

anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2.

Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called

saprobes

The type of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen

Occurs in Cyanobacteria

Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane is called

Facilitated Diffusion

The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semi-permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and use energy is called

Active Transport

The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called

Endocytosis

When bacteria that are living in a freshwater stream moved to seawater, then what would happen:
A. It would be in a hypotonic solution.
B. It would gain water.
C. It would be in a isotonic solution.
D. It would shrivel.
E. None are correct

It would gain water

Which of the following microorganisms would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental?
A. bacteria
B. protozoa
C. fungi
D. algae
E. cyanobacteria

Protozoa

Which of the following require the cell to use ATP?
A. facilitated diffusion
B. diffusion
C. endocytosis
D. osmosis
E. None of the choices are correct.

Endocytosis

Contractile vacuoles are:
A. used to expel excess water from cells.
B. found in bacterial cells.
C. important to certain organisms in hypertonic environments.
D. protein carriers in cell membranes.
E. None of the choices are correct.

Used to expel excess water from cells

Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab benchtop, on the shelf of a 37C incubator and on the shelf of a 50C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37C and 50C, slight growth out on the benchtop, and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?

Mesophile

Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species is a/an:

Facultative anaerobe

A microorganism that has an optimum growth temperature of 37C but can survive short exposure to high temperatures is called a/an.

Thermoduric

An organism with a temperature growth range of 45C to 60C would be called a/an:

Thermophile

All of the following could find a location in or on body tissues suitable for growth, except:
A. psychrophiles.
B. anaerobes.
C. facultative anaerobes.
D. mesophiles.
E. capnophiles.

psychrophiles

A microorganism that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with

Carbon Dioxide

Which of the following choice is true in case of a microaerophile?
A. It grows best in an anaerobic jar.
B. It grows with or without oxygen.
C. It needs normal atmospheric levels of oxygen.
D. It requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels.
E. None of the choices are correct.

It requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels.

A halophile would grow best in

Salt Lakes

The E. coli that normally live in the human large intestines and produce vitamin K that the body uses would be best termed a _____ relationship.
A. parasitic
B. saprobic
C. commensal
D. mutualistic
E. None of the choices are correct.

None are correct

The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called the

Generation Time

The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which the rate of multiplication equals the rate of cell death is the:

Stationary Phase

The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to their new environment, metabolizing but not growing is the:

Lag Phase

In the viable plate count method, a measured sample of a culture is evenly spread across an agar surface and incubated. Each _____ represents one _____ from the sample.

Colony, cell

The majority of organisms live or grow in habitats between

pH6 and 8

An organism that grows best at a higher CO2 tension than is normally present in the atmosphere is a(n):

Capnophile

Barophiles are microorganisms able to tolerate

high atmospheric pressure

Plant roots provide various growth factors for soil bacteria, and the bacteria help fertilize the plant by supplying it with minerals. This is an example of:
A. antagonism.
B. commensalism.
C. parasitism.
D. synergism.
E. mutalism.

mutalism

The stage in a normal growth curve when cells reach the maximum rate of cell division is the

Log Phase

The decline in growth rate during the death phase is due to all of the following, except:
A. the depletion of nutrients.
B. the depletion of oxygen.
C. the excretion of biochemical pollutants.
D. the excretion of organic acids.
E. the decrease in temperature of the culture.

The decrease in temperature of the culture

What method of enumerating cells is the only one to detect live cells?

Flow cytometer

If a culture starts out with 1 cell and after 4 hours there are 64 cells, how many generations have occurred?

4

You inoculate a culture into a test tube containing broth and take it out of the incubator the next day. You see the culture is growing equally throughout the broth. You conclude the culture must be:

Microaerophile

You inoculate a culture into a test tube containing broth and take it out of the incubator the next day. You see the culture is growing at the bottom of the tube. You conclude the culture must be:

Aerotolerant

Facultative anaerobes usually possess

Alternative mechanisms for dealing with oxygen.

Most microorganisms on earth can only live and survive in habitats that are similar to human body conditions.
True False

False

Saprobes do not need a carbon source for growth and metabolism.
True False

True

The main reservoir of nitrogen is nitrogen gas from the earth's atmosphere.
True False

True

Lithoautotrophs use inorganic nutrients for carbon and energy sources.
True False

True

Facilitated diffusion and active transport require a carrier protein to mediate the movement across the plasma membrane.
True False

True

Bacteria have an average generation time of 24 hours.
True False

False

The time that it takes for a freshly inoculated agar culture to develop visible colonies is principally governed by that species generation time.
True False

True

In a commensal relationship, the commensal benefits but the cohabitant is neither harmed nor benefited.
True False

True

Transverse binary fission results in 4 daughter cells from 1 parent cell.
True False

False

After binary fission, daughter cells will differ genetically.
True False

False

A closed culture system is used to determine a population growth curve.
True False

True

The degree of turbidity in a culture correlates to the amount of cell growth.
True False

True

The direct cell count, using a cytometer, can quantitate viable cell numbers from a sample. True False

True

Organisms depending on each for survival through time is coevoluion.
True False

False

All microbiota interactions with humans are harmful.
True False

False

Microorganisms that live in severe habitats, such as very hot, acidic, or salty environments, are called ____.

Extromophile

Organisms called _____ live on or in the body of a host and cause some degree of harm.

Parasites

When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is specifically termed _____.

Phagocytosis

Mediated transport of polar molecules and ions across the plasma membrane utilizes a _____ _____ that will bind to the substance effecting a conformational change that allows movement across the membrane.

Carrier protein

An organism that uses CO2 for its carbon needs would be called a/an _____.

Capnophile

In _____ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting.

Turgid

The toxic superoxide ion is converted to harmless oxygen by two enzymes: _____ and _____.

Catalase, superdimutase

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