Establishing New Government
George Washington was voted as our 1st President of the U.S. Americans assumed that they would promote common good and could manage political affairs. Congress refined the machinery of government with the creation of executive departments and a federal court system and provided revenue with passage of a tariff act.
Jefferson and Hamilton
These 2 men started the developement of political parties. Federalist and Republican; Their differences forced the Congress to make many important decisons. Even though Washington was trying to stop political fighting, these factions developed and advocated diverse, dynamic, and differing ideas.
Hamilton's Plan for Prosperity and Security
As being secretary of treasury, Hamilton had to make a plan for funding the federal debt which became a great problem. He made two proposals, "funding" and "assumption."
He also asked Congress for a national bank and government aid to manufacturing.
Hamilton's meaning of Assumption
Assumption meant that the federal government would become liable for the states' debts. Some states, such as Virginia, had already paid off their debts and would gain
nothing from assumption. They defeated this in House of Rep. but Hamilton salvaged it by paying Virginia some money.
The Bank Controversy
Hamilton also proposed that Congress charter a national bank. Madison however thought this was only to pay the rich. Public opinion began to turn against Hamilton because he wanted the President to interpret the Constitution
broadly, as giving Congress implied powers.
Setback for Hamilton
Hamilton asked Congress to enact a program favorable to manufacturing, but opposition had now grown. Madison raised prospect of the central government becomeing more powerful than individual state governments. Jefferson warned the rise of cities would destroy agriculture and the civic virtue that farming made. Hamilton's recommendations were defeated.
The Battle over Foreign Affairs
The United States had to respond to the wars set off in Europe by the French Revolution, but Hamilton and Jefferson disagreed on the proper course of action. Republicans stood for states' rights, strict interpretation of the Constitution and friendship with France; Federalists stood for a strong national government, central economic planning, social order and friendship with England.
The Peril of Neutrality
Americans wanted to remain neutral when France and England went to war in 1793, but both sides made that difficult. England was a serious problem because they still occupied land in the NorthWest and did not want to cooperate with America.
John Jay was sent to negotiate demands for removale of English form America, payment of seized ships, better commercial relations, and acceptance of the United
States as a neutral nation. He however had no chance because Hamilton went behind his back and told England that America would negotiate freely. His treaty gave American nothing, and Federalist portrayed Republicans as traitors.
Pushing Natives Aside
English posts in the Northwest Territory had supplied and encouraged Indian raids on American settlements. Americans finnaly beat Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Spain saw this as an Anglo-American alliance against Spain. They suddenly offered to open the Mississippi, settle the disputed border between Spanish Florida and United States, and cease to supply the Indians. These offers resulted in the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney's Treaty).
Informing The Publc
Newspapers transformed the political culture of he U.S.
Gazette of the U.S.-Federalist National Gazette- Republicans
Birthe of Political Clubs "Democrat and Republican"
Whiskey Rebellion linked to Conspiracy
A group of Farmers protested a tax on whiskey because it threatened their business. Washington sent militiamen with Hamilton to stop the protest, but when they arrived the troublemakers disappeared. Federalist thought Republicans sent French officials to stir up unrest and Federalists thought it was a pretext to create a strong army to intimidate Republicans.
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington left and told Americans to avoid forging permanent foreign alliances and to avoid forming political parties.
The Adams Presidency
During the John Adams administration, the Federalist party controlled the government and tried to suppress the Republican party. The Federalists failed because they could not remain united.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand. Started mainly from Jay's Treaty and Quasi-War
Crushing Political Dissent
The extreme Federalists began to build up the army, even though there was no prospect of a French invasion to stifle international opposition. Hamilton needed a declaration of War against France, but Adams never made one.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Made to Persecute Repbulicans; The Alien Enemies Act and the Alien Act gave the president power to expel any foreigner. The Naturalization Act required immigrants to reside in the United States for fourteen years before becoming eligible for citizenship. The last act, the Sedition Act, made it a crime to criticize the government.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Jefferson's and Madison's repsonse to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson claimed each state had power to decide if acts of Congress were constitutional, and if not, to nullify them. Madison urged the states to protect their citizens, but did not assert a state's right to nullify federal law.
Adams Finest Hour
In 1799 Adams openly broke with Hamilton, he made negotians with France that brought down war hysteria against France and made Hamilton's Army a usless expense. Adams saved the nation from the schemes of the High Federalists.
Election of 1800
There was a tie between Jefferson and Burr that had to be resolved by the House. This lasted until Jefferson was elected; Made the 12th Amendment to never let this happen again. Even though this was bad, there were no riots, no attempted coup by military, no secession, nothing except the peaceful transfer of government between the parties.
Main Supporter: Hamilton
Beliefs: Favored Great Britain, Strong Central Government, National Bank, Alien and Sedition Acts, National Debt is Good, Income came from Manufactoring.
Main Supporter: Jefferson
Beliefs: Favored France, Unnecessary to help rich, Weak Central Government, Income from the People, Free speech during Alien & Sedition Acts, U.S. Constitution Strictly Interpreted.
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government.
American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829). One of the 3 who wrote the Federalist Papers and made Jay's Treaty.