chemistry-carbs-lipids

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i hate anatomy and have no time for it

Chemistry

the study of matter/change

macromolecules and change

build and break down/manipulate the form to get something-proteins, carbs, nucleic acids...

structure of matter

composition of the human body-anatomy

matter

has mass/volume

working of body's physiology
metabolism

chemical reactions break down and rebuild matter, creating and using energy

6 main elements in human body

carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfer
CHNOPS

trace elements

copper, iron, zinc, potassium, calcium, sodium iodine, manganese

atom

make molecules-atoms build matter, smallest unit

atomic structure

don't confuse with cell

nucleus

proton(+) neutron(no charge)

subatomic particles

protons, neutrons, electrons,

protons

+, 1amu, nucleous

neutron

no charge, 1amu, nucleous

electron

-, "0" amu,

atomic symbol

letter represents kind of element

atomic number

number of protons

atomic mass

number of protons and neutrons

isotopes

different form of the atom; more neutrons; same number of protons

radio active isotopes-half life

half of how long an isotope lives

thyroid

iodine-131 is tracer- proper function of thyroid gland

heart

thallium-201-proper activity of heart

cancer

cobalt-60- typical cancer treatment drug

bone scan-radioactive tracer absorbed by bone

x-ray, x-ray darker(hot spot--over activity), x-ray lighter(cold spot--under activity), advantages
bone density

electron shells-"atomic happiness"

electron configuration, noble gases

covalent bond

sharing-strongest bond in the body

molecules

group of atoms bonded together by covalent bonds

single, double and triple bonds

2,4,6

ions

positively or negatively charge particle
+=feel good because it gave the electron; -=mean because it took the electron

ionic compounds

nonmetal to metal particle

hydrogen bond

temporary

polar covalent compounds

molecules joined together-unequal sharing of the electrons- hang out more towards one side of the atom

compound

2 or more atoms joined together

molecule

2 or more atoms joined by a covalent bond

molecular formula

C6H12O6
shows number and kinds of atoms

structural formula

shows bonds/structure/arrangement of atoms in space

synthesis

combine-make- build bonds
A+B=AB

condensation synthesis

reaction involved in synthesis- put together-release water

decomposition

break bonds
complex down to simpler pieces
heat is often a byproduct-energy released
AB--> A+B

hydrolysis

break apart-add water-give off energyand have simpler molecules

exchange reaction

AB + CD --> AD + BC

reversible reaction

forward/backward
stressing the stressor
A+B --> <-- AB
H2CO3 --> <-- H+HCO3

catalysts

start reaction-enzymes not consumed(reaction helpers)

acid

proton doner-higher pH=lower acidity
high [H+]; low [OH-]

[H+]

hydrogen ion concentration

examples of acids in body

HCL(stomach)

base

high[OH-]; low [H+]

examples of bases in body

no strong bases;sodium bicarbonate=weak base(8/9)

neutral acid/base

7

range

0-14

slightly basic

blood: pH 7.4

acidosis: pH 7.35 or below

diabetes blood-acidic
homeostasis of blood

alkalosis: pH 7.45 or above

body combat-basic
homeostasis of blood

carbonic acid

buffer blood-control of the ion concentration by removal or addition of ions

inorganic substances

no carbon

water

cohesive, adhesive, heat, solvent

cohesive

stick to itself: polar + and -
capillary action

adhesive

stick to something other than itself
capillary action

heat

high boiling pt. ability to absorb heat, high specific heat capacity
sweat-KE highest escape cooling the body

solvent

dissolves polar, ionic -- doesn't dissolve nonpolar

oxygen

nonorganic molecule-cellular respiration uses O2 to make ATP from glucose

CO2

waste product of cellular respiration-Krebs cycle

salts

electrolytes (inorganic ions)
gatorade

bicarbonate ion HCO3

acid/base buffer

calcium ion Ca+2

bones, blood clot muscle contraction

carbonate ion CO3-2

form bicarbonate, goes to blood

Choride ion Cl

water balance

Magnesium ion Mg+2

bones

phosphate ion PO4-3

make ATP, DNA, RNA, bones, membranes

potassium K+

sep charges; stable membrane
+on outside; - on inside
muscles nerve cells

sodium ion Na+

sodium potassium pump

sulfate ion- SO4-2

membrane, polarity, acid, base buffer

carbohydrates polymers

energy cells require-cellulose, starch

elements and ratio

contain atoms of 2 as many hydrogen to oxygen

use of carbs in body

build cellular parts-energy

monomer: monosaccharides

building blocks of more complex carbohydrates-repeating unit - simple sugars

glucose

straight chain of carbon atoms

fructose

ring structure

galactose

another example of monomers

disaccharides

2 simple sugars- building blocks

produced condensation synthesis

2 monomers added together

water-product

metabolic waste in forming disaccharides

degradation by hydrolysis

reverse condensation syn.
add water --> break bond

water - reactant

break bond in disaccharide

sucrose

sugar used in baking

lactose

milk sugar

polysaccharides

formed by many simple sugar units

glycogen

stored form of glucose in simple sugar unis
liver and muscles
always 0.01% in blood
diabetes urine dip test-test glucose in urine- too much in blood - pick other energy source

starch

stored form of glucose

hydrolyzed in humans

break down starch
eat complex carbs for energy

cellulose

structural form of glucose-build cell walls of plants
not hydrolyzed in humans-fiber

chitin

structural form of carb in insects exoskeleton, fungi cell walls

lipids

nonpolar-won't mix with water-equal sharing of electrons

elements

lots of carbon and hydrogen, little oxygen,fat

uses of lipids in body

store energy for cellular activities,insulation, steroid hormones, support and structure = cholestrol

triglycerides (fats)

gycerol unit-fatty acid

monomers in lipids

gycerol + 3 fatty acids

saturated fats

full of hydrogen
animals-cows, milk, butter- solid at room temp.

unsaturated fats

more double bonds-less hydrogen
plant-corn oil, canola oil -liquid at room temp.

trans fats

take unsaturated and give hydrogen ions
texture/perserving

phospholipids

contains glycerol portion + 2 fatty acid chains
found hydrophobic and hydrophilic cellular structures found in membranes

polar head and nonpolar tails

o~~ ~~o
builds wall

polar head

phosphate portion is soluable
polar-hydrophilic-likes water

non polar tails

fatty acid portion is insoluble in water
nonpolar = hydrophobic - is scared of water

steriods

four connected rings of carbon atoms

cholestrol backbone

all body cells:synthesize other steroids, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone =adrenal glands

hormones

chemical messangers derivanative of cholesterol

aldosterone:Na level in blood

help water balance

sex hormones

estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, galestrogen

saturated fats and cholesterol deposits in lining of blood vessels

lumin-->closing --> blood clot --> heart attack

familial hypercholesterolema

a lot of cholestrol is a disease - dominant

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