The greatest northern humanist, collected cliches in Adages; used satire to criticize church's problems; Handbook of the Christian Knight emphasized inner faith vs. outer forms of worship (sacraments, etc.). Translated the Bible into Latin. Wanted to reform the church, NOT abandon it.
Thomas More (1478-1535)
Very important northern humanist, wrote Utopia (nowhere). Depicted civilization having political and economic injustices limited by having all property held in common. Highly critical of certain practices of the church, but gave his life for his beliefs. Executed by Henry VIII for refusing to take the oath regarding Henry as Head of Church of England
Invented Printing Press, movable type (1452). Allowed him to print 200 bibles in a year (as ornate as any hand-written one). Led to significant increase in literacy, allowed for Reformation to spread so rapidly
Donation of Constantine
Lorenzo Valla used critical textual analysis to discover that it was not in fact written by Constantine himself. Words were used that did not appear for 400 years after his death.
The Prince (1513) was the first work of modern political thought; a resume in which he tried to convince the Medici to partake in his services of diplomat/official in the chancellery. Horrified by the domination of Italian peninsula, believed that a strong ruler could expel foreigners.
Students that used Cicero's involvement in political causes for public classical education. Served in Florence as diplomats/worked in the chancellery office (official documentation). Took Petrarch one step further, studied Greek
A program of study including rhetoric and literature based on the classical world (500 BC-500 AD)
Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)
Father of Humanism, decided to study literary classics. Coined "Dark Ages", learned classical Latin in order to read original works. Discovered Cicero's letters, created whole new writing style to mimic Cicero's
Renaissance (14th-16th centuries)
Age of Rebirth, golden age of art, literature, intellectuals. referred back to greek, roman ages, skipped "backwards" Middle Ages. Individualism grew, people began taking credit for their own works rather than crediting God