3 Written questions
3 Multiple choice questions
- The greatest northern humanist, collected cliches in Adages; used satire to criticize church's problems; Handbook of the Christian Knight emphasized inner faith vs. outer forms of worship (sacraments, etc.). Translated the Bible into Latin. Wanted to reform the church, NOT abandon it.
- Lorenzo Valla used critical textual analysis to discover that it was not in fact written by Constantine himself. Words were used that did not appear for 400 years after his death.
- Age of Rebirth, golden age of art, literature, intellectuals. referred back to greek, roman ages, skipped "backwards" Middle Ages. Individualism grew, people began taking credit for their own works rather than crediting God
3 True/False questions
Johannes Gutenberg → Invented Printing Press, movable type (1452). Allowed him to print 200 bibles in a year (as ornate as any hand-written one). Led to significant increase in literacy, allowed for Reformation to spread so rapidly
Civic Humanism → Students that used Cicero's involvement in political causes for public classical education. Served in Florence as diplomats/worked in the chancellery office (official documentation). Took Petrarch one step further, studied Greek
Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) → Father of Humanism, decided to study literary classics. Coined "Dark Ages", learned classical Latin in order to read original works. Discovered Cicero's letters, created whole new writing style to mimic Cicero's