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Sea Peoples

invaders who destroyed the Egyptian empire in the late thirteenth century; otherwise unidentifiable because they went their own ways after their attacks on Egypt

Third Intermediate Period

dark age that lasted 400 years and had political fragmentation

Nubians

people of south Egypt that adopted many features of Egyptian culture

Kushites

people of modern day Sudan; worshipped Egyptian gods and used Egyptian hieroglyphs; their king swept through the and reunited theentire Nile Valley

Phoenicians

culture that inhabited the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea; called "Purple People" or Phoenicians because of the remarkable purple dye they produced from certain sea snails; exported goods across middle east

Purple People

Greek name for Phoenicians

Carthage

city founded by Phoenicians in 813 B.C.E. , one day would struggle with Rome for domination of the western Mediterranean

Phoenician Cultural Legacy

development of the alphabet

Hebrews

people that migrated into Nile Delta looking for good land; only source about is the unreliable bible; followed leader Moses out of Egypt after being enslaved there and into Palestine

Moses

leader of the hebrews that lead them out of Egypt away from slavery to Palestine, the "promised land"

Hebrew Bible

religious document that contains many myths and legends, as well as historical material

Philistines

people that were greatest threat to Hebrews, had superior technology and military organization

Amorites

relatives of Hammurabi's Babylonians

Canaanites

semitic-speaking people; mingled with Hebrews

Baal

ancient Semitic fertility god represented as a golden calf

Yahweh

only god of Hebrews

Saul

leader of Hebrews; established a monarchy of twelve Hebrew tribes to keep Philistines at bay

David

leader of Hebrews; continued Saul's work and captured Jerusalem which he made the religious center of the realm

Solomon

son of David; created a nation by dividing it into twelve territorial districts cutting across the old tribal borders; launched a building program that included cities, palaces, fortresses, and roads

Ark of the Covenant

chest that contained the holiest of Hebrew religious articles

Israel

northern half of Solomon's kingdom; capital at Samaria

Samaria

capital of Israel

Judah

southern half of Solomon's kingdom

Jerusalem

center of Israel and Judah

Babylonian Captivity

period when the people of Judah were sent into exile in Babylonia (587-538 B.C.E.)

Cyrus the Great

Persian king who permitted 40,000 exiles to return to Jerusalem

Jewish Family Life

nuclear family and mariage were very important in Jewish life

Role of Father and Mothers and their relationships with their sons and daughters

mothers taught young children and provided for mens physicals needs while they studied; fathers gave more of an education to their sons as they got older

Assyrians

Semitic people that dominated northern Mesopotamia, influenced by Babylonian culture, one of the most warlike people in history

Tiglath-pileser III

Assyrian king who conquered Syria, Palestine, and the two Jewish kingdoms

Sargon II

Assyrian king who defeated Egyptians

Assyrian military tactics

excavations to undermine city walls, battering rams to knock defense down, had corps of engineers in military, could coordinate their efforts in open battle and siege warfare

Corps of Engineers

people in military who bridged rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming

Medes and Babylonians

two groups of people who joined forces and took down the Assyrian Empire

612 BCE

year the Assyrian Empire was destroyed

Nineveh

chief capital of Assyrians on the Tigris River

Iranians

Indo-Europeans from central Europe and southern Russia; migrated into the land between Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf

Persians

most important Iranian people, one of the greatest empires of the ancient near east; depended on diplomacy to rule; allowed conquered people to practice native customs and religions

Geographic features of Persia

modern Iran; mountains and deserts; plateau surrounded by mountains

Geographic impact of Iran's history

area was a highway between western and eastern Asia; nomadic people migrated from Russia and Central Asia towards Iran where they met urban dwellers

Iranian Military Advantage

given by horses; could use chariots or men on horseback

Medes

Iranians who settled in Media in the north

Ecbatana

capital of Medes; modern Hamadan

Cyrus the Great

king of Persians, had goals to win control of the west and thus of terminal ports of great trade routes that crossed Iran and Anatolia and to secure eastern Iran from the pressure of nomadic invaders

Lydia

young kingdom in Anatolia overthrown by Persians

Croesus

conquered king of Lydia whose life was spared by Cyrus, as he became a friend and adviser

Examples of Cyrus' human decisions and actions

sparing life of Croesus, allowing conquered people to maintain culture and religion, restored sacred objects to Jews and returned them to Jerusalem where he helped build their temple

Zoroaster

religious thinker and preacher who introduced new spiritual concepts to Iranian People, taught that life is a constant battleground between good and evil

Ahuramazda

Iranian god who embodied good and truth, opposed by Ahirman

Ahriman

hateful spirit who stood for evil and lies, opposed by Ahuramazda

Zoroastrianism

religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster, who emphasized the individuals' responsibility to choose between good and evil, often meet with opposition thought the Persian ruler Darius was a convert, won converts through Iran under the protection of Persian kings

Darius (r. 521-486)

Persian ruler who converted to Zorastrianism, did not impose it on others

Cambyses (r. 530-522)

son of Cyrus, subdued Egypt

Xerxes (r. 486-464 BCE)

son of Darius, unsuccessfully invaded Greece

satrapy

territory governed by a satrap, a governor of a Persian province

geographic boundaries of Persian Empire

Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran, and western India

Persepolis

capital of Persia near modern day Schiras, Iran

Royal Road

main highway created by Persians; spanned 1677 miles from western Turkey to Iran

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