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Trompe l'oeil

An illusionistic painting intended to "deceive the eye."

Prior to the invention of photography, the easiest way to reproduce images was through...

What are the two types?

Printmaking.

*Two techniques:
-Aquatint = a print resembling a water color.

-Lithography = the artist uses a crayon or other grease-based medium to draw a design onto a specially prepared block of porous limestone, and the ink only remains in the spots where the artist marked (free and spontaneous).
**It's a process of printmaking from a drawing in oily crayon or stone

Engraving:

An incised design, also a print made from cutting or carving on a metal plate

Difference between modernity and modernism

Modernity = refers to the condition post-industrial, capitalist society as it is rooted in the urban culture where leisure activities as well as daily necessities are available commercially.

Modernism = The cultural expression where new forms of entertainment along with the necessities of life plays a central role in one's life. It's associated with ideas of progress and novelty and reflects the dominant ethos of society. Modern art is a response to the diverse political, economic, and cultural pressures of modernity.

Daguerreotype

Photographic process invented by Daguerre and patented in 1839 for fixing positive images on silver-coated metal plates. Widely used, especially for portraits.

What process superseded daguerreotypes?

Calotype process by which numerous prints may be made from a single negative.

Assemblage

An artwork composed of 3D objects, either natural or manufactured, often junk

Collage

A composition made by gluing pieces of paper, cloth, etc on a canvas or other ground.

Avant-garde

Literally meaning the vanguard. Refers to those in advance or ahead of their time - or thought to be so.

Linear perspective

A technique for indicating spatial recession on a two-dimensional surface in which literal or implied lines converge at one or two points in the distance.

Maquette

A small preliminary model for a larger work of sculpture.

Pentimento

An Italian term for part of the picture that has been painted over by the Artist but is visible beneath the top layer of the paint.

Primitive Art

Term used to describe the traditional, indigenous arts of Africa, Oceania, and North America.

Primitivism

Term used to characterize modern artists who incorporated elements from the artifacts of those regions.

Perspective

Systems of representing objects in spatial recession; either linear or aerial.

Pointilllism/Divisionism

The technique of painting with small areas of unmixed pigments juxtaposed so that they continue optically when seen from a certain distance. Used by Impressionists and Post Impressionists

Prints

A generic term used for all images made in multiple copies from woodblocks, metal plates, inked stone, photographic negatives, etc.

Claribel and Etta cone and Gertrude Stein

Collectors and promoters of avant-garde art.

Claribel and Etta Cone of Baltimore collected and commissioned work. Claribel met Gertrude Stein at medical school and Gertrude introduced her and her sister to Parisian Avant-Garde work.


Mary Cassatt also introduced a number of American collectors to her impressionist colleagues; facilitating European art into the US.


Lillie Bliss and The Rockefellers helped to found the Museum of Modern Art in 1929.

Societe Anonyme (NYC) daring venue for Avant Garde Art

Sfumato

A soft, misty effect attained in oil painting mainly by the use of glazes to create delicate transitions of color and tone.

Still life

A representative of such inanimate objects such as flowers, fruits, dead animals, or household articles.

Symbol

An object or representation that stands for a specific thing or idea. A symbol carries meaning by virtue of social consent. Linguistic signs can also be symbols.

Nicolas Poussin (page 5)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Holy Family on the Steps
-1648
-Oil on canvas
-Neoclassicism; classical subject matter - Rich colors, very linear, and figures appear very structured and precise like sculptures.

Jacques-Louis David (page 4)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Oath of the Horatii
-1748
-Oil on canvas
-Neoclassicism; the structure of the figures is very similar to that of Poussin's "Holy Family on the Steps" Very linear and sculpture like figures within confined spaces.

William Blake (page 6)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Nebuchadnezzar
-1795
-Color print finished in ink and watercolor on paper
-Shows the Babylon king suffering the madness described in the Book of Daniel. The nudity emphasizes the king's insanity. Romantic.

Rembrandt Peale (page 42)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Rubens Peale with a Geranium
-1801
-Oil on canvas
-Realism/Neoclassicism

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (page 10)

-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Plate 30 from The Disasters of War
-1810-11
-Etching
-Very barbaric, fantastical scenes of human depravity; Romanticism. Depicts the devastating results of Spain's popular uprisings against Napoleon armies during the Peninsular War.

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (page 9)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Grande Odalisque
-1814
-Oil on canvas
-Neoclassicism; Combined classical clarity with romantic sensuousness - painted a very liberated woman with boldness.

George Catlin (page 42)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Buffalo Bulls Back Fat
-1832
-Oil on canvas
-(Early American Art and the Hudson River School) Accurate depictions of Native American dress and custom. Realism. Initially his art didn't sell bc he painted Native Am.

Anna Atkins (page 19)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Cystoseira granulata, from British Algae
-1843-44
-Cyanotype
-Photography; Calotype technique

Oscar G. Rejlander (page 19)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Two Ways of Life
-1857
-Combination of albumen print
-Used calotype technique which converted negative images into positive ones which made it possible. Rejlander was able to emulate masters and add a sense of high moral purpose to his work.

Eugene Delacroix (page 10)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Lion Hunt
-1861
-Oil on canvas
-French romantic movement; Explored exotic themes, violent movement, and intense emotion.

Edouard Manet (page 29)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Dejeuner sur l'herbe (Luncheon on the Grass)
-1863
-Oil on canvas
-Releasit; aimed to exhibit modern depictions of contemporary life. Created a scandal and was rejected by the Salon even though the subject was based on Renaissance precedents.

Edouard Manet (page 30)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Olympia
-1863
-Oil on canvas
-Impressionism; Created an even greater furor then Luncheon on the Grass. Olympia was a slap in the face to all the complacent academic painters. Olympia was an erotic and virtuous painting. She was a Venus reclining with a flower in her hair and slippers on her feet, and the name Olympia suggested that she was a prostitute. The bouquet of flowers, black cat at her foot, and black maid even further led to the conclusion that she was a prostitute.

Flowers = female genitalia
Black Africans = hypersexuality (European beliefe)
Cat = opportunistic

Claude Monet (page 34)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Impression: Sunrise
-1872
-Oil on canvas
-Impressionism; Japanese influence - rising sun

James Mcneil Whistler (page 1)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket
-1875
-Oil on Panel
-Whistler intended to capture the dazzling effects of a fireworks display over the Thames which defied the critic's understanding of nature as a divine creation. Held the doctrine "Art for Art's Sake" meaning that art held no social purpose whatsoever.

-He was the target of John Ruskin's criticism

Auguste Renoir (page 37)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Moulin de la Galette
-1876
-Oil on canvas
-Impressionism; picturesque wonderland on a lovely Sunday afternoon

Edgar Degas (page 39)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Little Dancer Fourteen Years
-1878-81
-Wax, hair, linen bodice, satin ribbon and shoes, muslin tutu, and wood base
-Appeared in impressionist exhibition - traditional media, foreshadowed the developments of 20th century sculpture.

Thomas Eakins (page 48)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Gross Clinic
-1875
-Oil on canvas
-Portraitist; embodied the light quality used by Rembrandt

James Whistler (page 96)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Peacock Room
-1876-77
-Oil color and gold on tooled leather and wood
-Aestheticism and Art Nouveau; Originally made for Fredrick Leyland's Chinese porcelain collection.

Christian Krohg (page 104)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Sick Girl
-1880-81
-Oil on wood
-Expressionism

John Singer Sargent (page 45)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Madame X (Mme Pierre Gautreau)
-1883-84
-Oil on canvas
-Very scandalous portrait. Strap was initially hanging off of her shoulder, but it was deemed as too suggestive so Sargent had to go back and repaint it = pentimento

Georges Seurat (page 52)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
-1884-86
-Oil on canvas
-Impressionism; he avoided lines to define contours and depended on shading to achieve soft figures.

Paul Cezanne (page 56)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Bay of Marseilles, seen from L'Estaque
-1885
-Oil on canvas
-Neo-Impressionist; revolutionary piece

Edvard Munch (page 104)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Sick Child
-1885-86
-Oil on canvas
-Expressionism

William Michael Harnett (page 43)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Old Violin
-1886
-Oil on canvas
-Demonstrated trompe-l'oeil, visual deception and classical simplicity. His still life paintings are so 3D

Vincent van Gogh (page 75)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Self portrait
-1888
-Oil on canvas
-Post-impressionism, Portraiture, said his head resembled that of a Buddhist monk

Vincent van Gogh (page 75)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Starry Night
-1889
-Oil on canvas
-Post-impressionism

Mary Cassatt (page 32)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Woman Bathing
-1890-91
-Drypoint and aquatint, printed in color
-Avant garde; A very humble subject, which she animates through the play of strong contour line and surface patterning. The boldly striped garment energizes the the floral pattern of the carpet allowing both surfaces merging into a single plane. Provides visual harmony rather than documentary information.

Henry Tanner (page 49)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Banjo Lesson
-1893
-Oil on canvas
-Impressionism; his painting overcomes the stereotypical portrayl of African Americans and banjo playing, and focused on familial intimacy

Paul Gauguin (page 72)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?
-1897-98
-Oil on canvas
-Primitivism;

Fredrick Leighton (page 95)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Bath of Psyche
-1890
-Oil on canvas
-Aestheticism and Art Nouveau

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (page 80)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Moulin Rouge - La Goulue
-1891
-Color Lithograph
-Post-impressionism, printmaker

Paul Cezanne (page 57)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Still Life with Basket of Apples
-1893
-Oil on canvas
-Neo-impressionist;

Edvard Munch (page 105)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Scream
-1893
-Oil and tempera on board
-Expressionism

Henri Matisse (page 111)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-La Desserte (Dinner Table)
-1896-97
-Oil on canvas
-Fauvism

Gertrude Kasebier (page 46)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Blessed Art Thou Among Women
-1900
-Platinum print on Japanese tissue
-Pictorialism, which emulates the softer lines and atmospheric qualities of impressionist paintings

Pablo Picasso (page 159)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Le Moulin de la Galette
-1900
-Oil on canvas
-Cubism

Edvard Munch (page 106)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Vampire
-1902
-Woodcut and lithograph
-Expressionism

Henri Matisse (page 115)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Open Window
-1905
-Oil on canvas
-Fauvism

Henri Matisse (page 115)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-The Portrait of Madame Matisse/The Green Line
-1905
-Oil and tempera on canvas
-Fauvism

Henri Matisse (page 116)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Le Bonheur de vivre (They Joy of Life)
-1905-06
-Oil on canvas
-Fauvism

Maurice de Vlaminck (page 120)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Portrait of Derain
-1906
-Oil on canvas
-Fauvism

Pablo Picasso (page 163)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Gertrude Stein
-1906
-Oil on canvas
-Cubism

Pablo Picasso (page 163)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Two Nudes
-1906
-Oil on canvas
-Cubism

Gustav Klimt (page 98)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Adele Bloch-Bauer I
-1907
-Oil, silver, and gold on canvas
-Art Nouveau

Henri Matisse (page 117)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Blue Nude: Memory of Biskra
-1907
-Oil on canvas
-Fauvism - heavy African art influence

Pablo Picasso (page 164)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
-1907
-Oil on canvas
-Cubism

Georges Braque (page 167)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Viaduct at L'Estaque
-1907
-Oil on canvas
-Fauvism

Pablo Picasso (page 169)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Three Women
-1907-1908
-Oil on canvas
-Cubism

Henri Matisse (page 125)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Harmony in Red (The Dessert)
-1908
-Oil on canvas
-Modernism

Georges Braque (page 168)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Large Nude
-1908
-Oil on canvas
-Cubism

Georges Braque (page 169)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Houses at L'Estaque
-1908
-Oil on canvas
-Cubism

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (page 137)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Street, Dresden
-1908
-Oil on canvas
-Expressionism

Henri Matisse (page 126)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Dance (III)
-1909-1910
-Oil on canvas
-Modernism

Pablo Picasso (page 172)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Girl with a Mandolin
-1910
-Oil on canvas
-Cubism

Pablo Picasso (page 173)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler
-1910
-Oil on canvas
-Great example of analytic cubism

Pablo Picasso (page 176)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Guitar, Sheet Music, and Wine Glass
-1912
-Pasted papers, gouache, and charcoal on paper
-Collage

Pablo Picasso (page 175)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Still Life with Chair Caning
-1912
-Oil and oilcloth on canvas, edged with rope
-Synthetic cubism

Vasily Kandinsky (page 145)
-Painting Name
-Year
-Medium
-Analyze/Era

-Composition VII
-1913
-Oil on canvas
-Expressionism

Analytic Cubism (1908-1912)

Describes the first phase of cubism that dissected forms and analyzed the structure of forms.


Example = Picasso - Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (1910)

Synthetic cubism (1912-14)

Describes the 2nd phase of cubism where paintings were built from objects and shapes cut from paper and other materials

Example = Picasso - Still Life Chair Caning (1912)

Fauvism

Expression of forms and landscapes. Colors and forms were distorted

Expressionism

Fundamental purpose of art was to express their intense feelings toward the world.
-Fauvism was apart of this larger movement

Cubism

Reducing the role of color to bring form to the forefront.
(Picasso, Cezanne [wasn't a cubist, but helped aid this movement], Braque)
-Offered the most original and powerful system of thinking

Frank Lloyd Wright

-Innovative and revolutionary
-Open spaces/concept/interior
-Lived in Oak Park, Illinois = one of the Nation's first suburbs

-He used materials in the natural state/surrounding and incorporated the interior to match the exterior.

2 Principles:
1) House should blend with its environment
2) Interior and exterior should blend

Everything was continuous

Art for Art's Sake

Art was to be voided of social purpose and moral function and is used to refer to self-motivated artists.

3 Points of Cubism:

1. Early (1906-1908)

2. ** High (1908-1914) which encompassed lots of compositional analysis

3. Late (1914-1921)

Camera Obscura

darkened chamber/room = a darkened enclosure in which images of outside objects are projected through a small aperture or lens onto a facing surface

was one of the inventions that led to photography.

Aerial Perspective

A technique for indicating spatial recession on a 2D surface by making objects crisp and clear when they are intended to be close to the viewer, and objects that are meant to be seen as far away are represented as hazy or less distinct.

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