Chapter 10 Biology
|Two types of reproduction||Asexual and sexual|
|Asexual reproduction|| Cell divides into 2 genetically identical offspring.|
Simple, efficient, increase population size rapidly.
Single and multicellular organisms.
|Sexual reproduction|| Fusion of 2 cells containing genetic material from each parent.|
Takes time and energy investment.
Produces genetic diversity.
|Prokaryotic Cell Division|| Chromosome loop replicates.|
Membrane indents until it meets in the middle and one cell becomes two.
|Eukarotic Cell Division|| More complex.|
Contains checkpoints which can stop the process.
Regulated by multiple molecules.
|The Cell Cycle|| G1- Growth|
|Mitosis||Interphase, Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis|
|Interphase||G1, S, G2|
|Prophase|| Chromatin condenses and becomes visible.|
Sister chromatids joined at centromere.
Centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell.
|Prometaphase|| Nuclear membrane dissolves.|
Proteins extend between centromere (kinetochore) and centrosome.
|Metaphase||Kinetochore filaments align chromosomes along the metaphase plate.|
|Anaphase||Kinetochores begin to shorten, pulling chromosomes apart.|
|Telophase|| Nuclear envelope reforms.|
Chromosomes disperse and are no longer visible.
|Cytokinesis|| Cell membrane splits completely between the two daughter cells. |
|Cdk Complex|| Cyclin dependent kinase.|
Switch moving the cell from one stage to another.
|Kinase||Adds phosphate to a protein.|
|MPF|| Maturation promoting factor.|
First Cdk discovered.
Moves cells from G2 to M phase.
|Anchorage dependence||Cells must be attached to a surface in order to divide.|
|Cancer||Uncontrolled cell growth.|
|P53|| Protein that blocks cell cycle if DNA is damaged.|
Levels increased in damaged cells.
Most important factor in cancer.
|Ras|| Protein that stimulates cell cycle.|
Overactive Ras can lead to cancerous cells.
|Totipotent||Can become any type of cell.|
|Pluripotent||Can become most types of cells.|
|Multipotent||Can become a few types of cells.|