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Stratified Sample

Each population is represented proportionally.

Random Sample

Individuals are selected by chance from the target population. Since each member had an equal chance of getting chosen, if the sample is big enough, subgroups of the population should be represented proportionally in the sample.

Sample

part of the target population

What are the steps of the scientific method?

1) form a question
2) form a hypothesis
3) test the hypothesis
4) analyze results
5) form a conclusion

What is a hypothesis?

an educated guess as a potential answer to the question

Target Population

the whole group you want to study or describe

Volunteer Bias

People who volunteer to participate in research studies often differ from people who do not.

Disadvantages of the Survey Method

Doesn't show cause and effect.
May not be entirely honest.
Don't represent the population as a whole.
Volunteer bias.

Advantages of the Survey Method

gathers lots of information quickly

What is a case study?

An in-depth investigation of an individual or small group.

Researchers often observe or speak with the participants, or research their backgrounds and personal histories. Use what they learn to generalize broader principles that apply to the larger population.

Laboratory-Observation Method

behavior is studied in a laboratory

Advantages of the Laboratory-Observation Method

Enables Researchers to control certain aspects of the study.
Demonstrates cause and effect!!

Disadvantages of the Laboratory-Observation Method

Laboratories can't replicate real-life environments.

Advantages of the Case-Study Method

provides insight to specific cases

Disadvantages to the Case-Study Method

May focus on isolated circumstances that can't be replicated.
People interviewed may distort past experiences.
Researchers may unintentionally encourage people to answer the questions in a certain way.

What is the Longitudinal Method?

A group of participants are observed at intervals over an extended period of time.

Advantages of the Longitudinal Method

Enables researchers to see how individuals change over time.

Disadvantages of the Longitudinal Method

Time-consuming and expensive.
Participants may not be available for the duration of the study.

What is the Cross-Sectional Method?

Researchers compare the differences and similarities among people in different age groups at a given time.

Advantages of the Cross-Sectional Method

Less time-consuming than the longitudinal method for studying changes over time.

Disadvantages of the Cross-Sectional Method

Differences between the members of the sample cannot be necessarily attributed to age or development.

What is the Testing Method?

Several types of tests measure various elements of human behavior such as abilities, interest, and personality.

Advantages of the Testing Method

Enables researchers to gain insight to certain aspects of an individual's abilities or behavior.

Disadvantages of the Testing Method

Doesn't always provide a complete or accurate representation of an individual's true abilities or personality.

Positive Correlation

As one goes, up so does the other.
(ex: acheivement and sallaries)

Negative Correlation

As one goes up, the other goes down.
(ex: the greater the stress, the poorer the health)

What's a limitation of correlations?

It describes relationships, but NOT cause and effect.

What happens to the experimental group?

They receive the treatment.

Controlled Experiment

has experimental groups, but ALSO controlled groups

Experimental Method

Researchers administer a treatment, then observe participants to see if they were affected.

Advantages of the Experimental Method

Can manipulate variables.
Cause and effect.
Can record all stages in the experiment.

Disadvantages of the Experimental Method

The lab doesn't accurately represent real-life conditions.
Possibility of volunteer bias and placebo effect.

What is "informed consent"?

People agree/consent to participate in a research study only after they have been given an overview of the research and a choice of whether or not to participate.

When is deception allowed?

When no harm will be done to the participant.

(multiple choice question)
The testing method of observation investigates human behavior through:

a) personality tests
b) aptitude tests
c) intelligence tests
d) all of the above

(answer: D, all of the above)

The case-study method of observation was practiced by whom?

Freud

(multiple choice question)
Why are scientists cautious about making generalizations from case studies?

a) such observations occur in a controlled lab setting
b) case studies can't always be replicated
c) case studies don't always include information from other sources
d) all of the above

(answer: D, all of the above)

The cross-sectional method charts changes over time by...

comparing participants from different age groups

Observing the way people eat in a restaurant is an example of...

naturalistic observation

(multiple choice question)
"Skinner boxes" are examples of...

a) naturalistic observation
b) laboratory observation
c) stratified samples
d) random sample

(answer: B, laboratory observation)

A ___ experiment uses both control and experimental groups.

ideal

______ observation has the drawback that it cannot be duplicated in real-life.

Laboratory observation

The _____ method of observation takes much less time than the longitudinal method, but it can accomplish many of the same objectives.

cross-sectional

What is the APA?

The American Psychological Association

After making their observations, scientists study their data using ______.

correlation

Confidentiality is important because...

it encourages participants to be honest

(multiple choice question)
The 1927 Hawthorne plant was flawed because...

a) there was no control group
b) the experimental group was too small
c) the sample didn't remain constant over the course of the experiment
d) all of the above

(answer: D, all of the above)

What was the Hawthorne Plant Study about?

how length of breaks affects productivity

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