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muscular strength is assessed by measuring

amount of force a muscle can produce with a single masimum effort

muscular endurance is assessed by measuring

the maximum number of reps or maximum amount of time you can hold a muscular contraction

a motor unit is made up of

a nerve connected to a number of muscle fibers

a muscle fiber is

an individual muscle cell connected in bundles

hypertrophy

development of large muscle fibers

slow twitch muscles are characterized by

reddish in color, fatigue resistant, slow contraction speed, lower capacity for tension, usually for endurance activities

fast twitch muscle fibers are characterized by

white in color, contract rapidly and forcefully, fatigue quickly, usually for actions that require strength and power

activities that would predominantly use slow-twitch muscle fibers are

endurance activities (EX-jogging, swimming...)

activities that would predominantly use fast-twitch muscle fibers are

strength and power activities (EX-sprinting)

injuries such as low back pain are reduced if the spine is properly aligned by strong muscles in the

abdomen, hips, lower back, and legs

what percentage of all Americans will be afflicted with low back pain at some point in their life

85%

strength training improves body composition primarily by

increasing muscle mass

metabolic rate increases if

muscle mass increases

testosterone

an essential hormone that men have in higher amounts than women and that allows men to build more muscle mass than women

results of inactivity and aging

loss of muscle mass, slower muscles, decreased strength, trouble performing simple everyday movements

people typically begin to lose muscle mass after age

30

cause of the decrease in muscle strength often associated with aging

inactivity, lack of a strength training program, and sarcopenia

strength training helps in the prevention and management of chronic disease by

lessening bone loss, improving glucose metabolism, increasing maximal oxygen consumption, reducing blood pressure

isometric exercise is best described as applying force

without a change in length of muscle

advantages of isometric or static exercises

strengthens muscles after injury or surgery, overcome weak pints in individual's range of motion, allows more weight to be lifted with that muscle during dynamic exercise

concentric muscle contraction

muscle force exerted as a muscle shortens

eccentric muscle contraction

a muscle lengthens as it contracts

eccentric (pilometric) loading

a good resistance training technique for developing explosive strength

speed loading

type of isotonic exercise used by athletes during training to simulate movement during sprinting or throwing

plyometrics

an exercise in which the individual jumps from a platform to the ground and then back up on the platform

isokinetic exercise is best described as applying force

at a constant speed against an equal force

compared to free weights, weight machines are considered

safe, convenient, and easy to use

compared to weight machines, free weights are

widely available, inexpensive, and convenient for home use

pilates

type of body weight exercise that emphasizes control of movement

stability ball exercise is particularly effective for improving

core, endurance, and strength

the MINIMUM number of training days per week for gaining strength is

2 nonconsecutive days (3 is better)

training intensity for weight training is determined by

how much weight you use

recommended amount of resistance and number of repetitions for improving muscular endurance is

40-60% of RM; 15-20 reps
(RM=repetition maximum)

recommended amount of resistance and number of repetitions for building muscular strength rapidly is

80% of RM; 1-5 reps
(RM=repetition maximum)

to build individual muscle strength and muscle size, it is best to

use heavy weight and do less reps

to improve muscular endurance, it is best to

use light weight and do more reps

in weight training, a set is a

group of reps followed by a rest period

to gain muscular strength and endurance for general fitness, the rest interval between sets should last

1-3 minutes

for overall fitness, how many different exercises should you include in your weight training program

8-10

antagonist muscle

opposes the action of a contracting muscle, its agonist

a cool-down period after a weight training workout should include

relaxing for 5-10 minutes and some stretching

when you are ready to increase resistance for an exercise in a weight training program, approximately how much weight should you add if you are currently lifting 100 lbs.?

5 lbs. (5%)

recommended strategies for strength training safety

use proper lifting technique, use spotters and collars with free weights, be alert for injuries

TF: Recent research on men indicates greater muscular strength is associated with lower rates of death from all causes, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

true

TF: Increased muscular strength and endurance reduces one's risk of injury.

true

TF: Weight training improves body composition by increasing fat free mass and raising metabolism.

true

TF: Strength training can lessen bone loss in postmenopausal women.

true

TF: Strength training can improve glucose metabolism.

true

TF: For a strength training program to develop general fitness, it is sufficient to do just one set of each exercise.

true

TF: For strength gains, a balanced diet is more important than taking supplements.

true

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