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Sir Robert Clive

an aggressive British empire-builder who eventually became the chief representative of the East India Company - India; consolidated British control in Bengal

Black Hole of Calcutta

an underground prison for holding prisoners in Bengal - the local ruler attacked Fort William and imprisoned local British population there.

British East India Company

Britain's company in charge of trade in India - was able to receive from Mughal court in India the authority to collect taxes from lands in the surrounding areas of Calcutta; set stage for British colonizing India in 1858

Lord Macartney

1793 - led a mission in Beijing to press for liberalization of trade restrictions; failed - he was angry!

Francis Xavier

first Jesuit missionary - arrived in 1549 to Japan and had some success in converting the local population to Christianity

price revolution

inflation in Europe during sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries; inflation rate = 2-3% a year; wheat prices increased; wages failed to keep up with price increase; commercial and industrial entrepreneurs benefit

joint-stock company

individuals bought stocks in a company and received dividends on their investment while a board of directors ran the company and made the important business decisions

Amsterdam Bourse

the trading of stocks replaced the exchange of goods; emerged as the hub of the European business world; aka Amsterdam Exchange

Mercantilism

the belief that the total volume of trade is unchangeable; prosperity of a nation depends on a plentiful supply of buillon (gold and silver); desirable to achieve a favorable balance of trade in which goods exported were of greater value than those imported

Gerardus Mercator

Flemish cartographer - Mercator Projection - tries to show the true shape of land masses, but only of a limited area; accurate near the equator, not accurate farther away from it; used by ship captains

Columbian Exchange

reciprocal importation and exportation of plants and animals between Europe and the Americas; Europe --> horses, cattle, wheat; America --> potatoes, corn, tomatoes, chocolate, tobacco

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