|Poem||A variable literary genre that is, foremost, characterized by the rhythmical qualities of language. They can be short (epigrams, haiku) or long (epics). One poetic work.|
|Poetry||The poems of one writer, to poems of a number of writers, to all poems generally, or to the aesthetics of poetry considered as an art.|
|Narrative ballad||A poem in ballad measure telling a story and also containing dramatic speeches. Tells a story.|
|Ballad||Defines the poem's shape or form, which was originally a song for dancing.|
|Paraphrasing||A brief restatement, in one's own words, of all or part of a literary work. It fixes both the general shape and the details of a poem in your mind, and it also reveals the poetic devices at work. Also highlights techniques and the language that make the poem effective.|
|Explication||A detailed analysis of a work of literature, often word by word and line by line; a close reading.|
|General explication||A more manageable technique that is a detailed analysis work of literature. It devotes attention to the meaning of individual parts in relationship to the entire work.|
|Diction (abstract)||Type of diction that refers to qualities that are rarefied and theoretical.|
|Diction (general)||Type of diction that signifies broad classes of persons, objects, and phenomena.|
|Diction (concrete)||Type of diction that describes conditions or qualities that are exact and particular.|
|High/Formal Diction||Proper, elevated, elaborate, and often polysyllabic language.|
|Middle/Neutral Diction||Correct language characterized by directness and simplicity.|
|Low/Informal Diction||Relaxes, conversational, and familiar language, utilizing contractions and elisions, and sometimes employing slang and grammatical mistakes.|
|Idiom(s)||Refers to words, phrases, and expressions that are common and acceptable in a particular language, even though they might, upon analysis, seem peculiar or illogical.|
|Dialects||Habits of speech that are characteristic of many groups, regions, and nations.|
|Slang|| Informal diction and substandard vocabulary. It can be permanent is some parts of a language. |
Example: "Cool story, bro."
|Jargon||Specialized words and expressions that are usually employed by members of specific professions or trades. (Football players, lawyers, doctors, etc).|
|Syntax||Refers to word order and sentence structure. A mark of style in a write. (regular patterns and variations) It may all depend on the rhetorical needs of a literary work.|
|Parallelism||One of the most recognizable rhetorical devices. A figure of speech in which the same grammatical forms are repeated.|
|Antithesis|| A rhetorical device of opposition in which one idea or word is established and then the opposite idea or word is expressed. |
Example: "I love and hate."
|Decorum||The convention or expectation that words and subjects should be exactly appropriate. High or formal words for serious subjects (epic poems or tragedy) and low and informal words for low subjects (limericks, farce).|
|Antimetabole|| Also known as chiasmus. A rhetorical pattern in which words are repeated in the sequence. |
Example: a b b a, as in "I lead the life I love; I love the life I lead."
|Denotation||The standard, minimal meaning of a word. Dictionary definition.|
|Connotation|| The meanings that words suggest; the overtones of words beyond their bare dictionary definitions or denotations.|
Example: "leaving," "getting away," "turning tail," have the same meaning, but different words.
|Speaker||Also known as the persona. The narrator of a story or poem, the point of view, often an independent character who is completely imagined and consistently maintained by the author.|
|Setting||The natural, manufactured, and cultural environment in which characters live and move, including all their possessions, homes, ways of life, and assumptions.|
|Point of View (1st, 2nd, 3rd)||First person would be when the speaker is inside the poem (my and I) Second would be the speaker narrating to a person (You). Third person would be when the person is completely outside the poem (They).|
|Listener||2nd person point of view. A person, not the reader, whom the speaker addresses directly and who is therefore "inside" the poem.|
|Dialogue||The speeches of two or more characters in a story, play, or poem.|
|Dramatic Monologue||A type of poem in which a speaker addresses an internal listener or the reader. Often the speaker includes detail reflecting the listener's unrecorded responses. The form is related to the soliloquy and the aside in drama.|
|Imagery||Images are references that trigger the mind to fuse together memories of sights (visual), sounds (auditory), tastes (gustatory), smells (olfactory), sensations of touch (tactile), and perceptions of motion (kinetic, kinesthetic).|
|Visual Images||Language describing visible objects and situations.|
|Auditory Images||Triggers our experiences with sounds.|
|Kinetic Images||Words describing general motion.|
|Figures of Speech||Organized patters of comparison that deepen, broaden, extend, illuminate, and emphasize meaning, and also that conform to particular patterns or forms such as metaphor, simile, and parallelism.|
|Metaphor|| A figure of speech that describes something as thought it actually were something else, thereby enhancing understanding and insight.|
Example: Your words are music to my ears.
|Simile|| A figure of comparison, using "like" with nouns and "as" with clauses.|
Example: "The trees were by the wind LIKE actors bowing after a performance."
|Paradox||A figure of speech embodying a contradiction that is nevertheless true.|
Example: "I, a child, very old." The contradiction would be that the a person cannot be old and young at once, but the contradiction can be reconciled if we realize that even as people get older they still retain many of the qualities of children.
|Anaphora|| Repetition of the same word or phrase throughout a work or a section of a work in order to lend weight and emphasis.|
Example: When a word is used multiply to make emphasize on a theme of a poem.
|Apostrophe||A speaker addresses a real or imagined listener who is not present.|
|Personification||A figure of speech in which human characteristics are attributed to nonhuman thongs or abstractions.|
|Synecdoche|| A figure of speech in which a part stands for a whole, or a whole for a part. |
Example: "All hands aboard." Shows that the narrator is referring to all of the sailers
|Metonymy|| A figure of speech in which one thing is used as a substitute for another with which it is closely identified. |
Example: White house, Halloween
|Understatement||A figure of speech by which details and ideas are deliberately underplayed or undervalued in order to create emphasis-form of irony.|
|Overstatement||Also known as overreacher, exaggeration effect. A rhetorical figure of speech in which emphasis is achieved through exaggeration.|
|Tone||The techniques and modes of presentation that reveal or create attitudes.|
|Verbal Irony||Language stressing the importance of an idea by stating the opposite of what is meant.|
|Dramatic Irony||A special kind of situational irony in which a character perceives his or her plight in a limited way while the audience and one or more of the other characters understand it entirely.|
|Situational Irony||Type of irony emphasizing that human beings are enmeshed in forces beyond their comprehension and control.|
|Satire||An important genre in the study of tone which is designed to expose human follies and vices.|
|Prosody||The study of poetic sounds and rhythms.|
|Alliteration||The repetition of identical consonant sounds. (Most often beginning words) in close proximity.|
|Assonance||The repetition of identical vowel sounds in different words in close proximity, as in the deep green sea.|
|Onomatopoeia|| A blending of consonant and vowel sounds designed to imitate or suggest the object or activity being described.|
Example: "That like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along."
|Cacophony|| "Bad Sound", Referring to words combining sharp and harsh sounds and rhythms.|
Example: "When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw."
|Euphony||"Good Sound", Referring to word groups containing consonants that permit an easy and pleasant flow of spoken sound.|
|Rhyme Exact|| Placement of rhyming words in which both the vowel and concluding consonant sounds. |
Example: apple and dapple.
|Rhyme Slant|| A near rhyme in which the concluding consonant sounds are identical. |
Example: slim and ham. or should and food.
|Rhyme Eye|| Words that seem to rhyme because parts of them are spelled identically but pronounced differently. |
Example: bear and fear.
|Rhyme Scheme|| Pattern of rhyme, usually indicated by the assignment of a letter of the alphabet to each rhyming sound.|
Example: a b b a
|Quatrain||A four-line stanza or poetic unit.|
|Couplet||Two lines that may be unified by rhyme or, in Biblical poetry, by content.|
|Stanza||A group of poetic lines corresponding to paragraphs in prose; stanzaic meters and rhymes are usually repeating and systematic.|
|Line||The basic poetic unit of length, appearing as a row of words on a page or else, sometimes, as a single word or even as a part of a word, and cohering grammatically through phrases and sentences.|
|Blank Verse||Unrhymed iambic pentameter. Most of the poetry in Shakespeare's plays is this.|
|Couplet (Heroic)||Two lines that may be unified by rhyme or, in Biblical poetry, by content. The two lines are usually identical in length and meter.|
|Tercet/Triplet||A three-line unit or stanza of poetry, usually rhyming a a a.|
|Lyric||A short poem or song written in a fixed stanzaic form.|
|Ode||A variable stanzaic poetic form (It's usually long compared to a song) with varying line lengths.|
|Elegy||A poem of lamentation about a death.|
|Pastoral||A traditional poetic form with topical material drawn from the often idealized lives and vocabularies of rural and shepherd life.|
|Epigram||A short and witty poem, often in couplets, that makes a humorous or satiric point.|
|Epitaphs||A short comment or description marking someone's death.|
|Limerick||A brief poem with pre-established line lengths and rhyming patterns, designed to be comic.|
|Free Verse||Poetry based on the natural rhythms of phrases and normal pauses, not metrical feet. Free of regular metrics.|
|Prose Poems||A short work, laid out to look like prose, but employing the methods of verse, such a rhythm and imagery, for poetic ends.|
|Symbolism/Symbol||A specific word, idea, or object that may stand for ideas, values, persons, or ways of life.|
|Allusion||Unacknowledged references and quotations that authors make while assuming that readers will recognize the original sources and relate their meanings to the new context. Compliments that the author pays to readers for their perceptiveness, knowledge, and awareness.|