loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords
the lesser lords in the exchange of land in feudalism, pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord
exchange of pledges that the relationship between lords and vassals was established within
estate, included buildings, towns, and peasants
the lord to which a vassal owed his first loyalty
heart of a medieval economy, the lord's estate, includes multiples villages and land as well as peasants that worked there
peasants on a manor who were bound there and not free
sacred rites of the Church that the priest gave to people in the manor villages- belief that participating in them would lead to everlasting life with God
a tax equal to 10% of a person's income that the Church requests in order to support itself
worldly- Church became the most powerful secular force in medieval Europe
authority over all secular rulers, claimed by medieval popes
developed specifically by the medieval Church. applied to religious teaching, the clergy, marriages, and morals
most severe and terrifying penalty that a person may face for disobeying Church law- people could not receive sacraments or a Christian burial- just one person
an order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and a Christian burial
obligated to give military service to the lord and protect vassal, were constantly at war and lived in castles
worked on land for the lord and provided other services and fees, were self sufficient and had harsh living conditions
to protect their interests, merchants who set up a new town would ask the local lord or king for "written document"
money for investment, spurred growth of banking houses
many merchants joined together in an organization
bill of exchange
a merchant deposited money with a banker in his home city and the banker issued a bill of exchange for cash in a distant city
most peasants became this- they paid rent for their land and hired farm laborers
stood between nobles and peasants
lending money with interest
in medieval towns, merchants and artisans merchants and artisans formed these associations
trainee to a guild master
outbreaks of rapid spreading disease
ideas contrary to Church teachings
new weapon weilded by english archers that shot out 3 arrows at once
Pope Innocent III
author of "On the Misery of the Human Condition" about the hot, wormy hell, and the long list of negative adjectives about humans
Author of the poem, "The Divine Comedy" about the 9 circles of hell
Jan van Eyck
Painted "The Last Judgement", an image of heaven, hell, and purgatory
The apostle who wrote a letter to the Romans to try and convert them to Christianity, showing an un-adulterated view of Christians
Writes a passage that demonizes Jews
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again
Reload the page to try again!
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.