Chap. 1 Vocab

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feudalism

loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords

vassals

the lesser lords in the exchange of land in feudalism, pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord

feudal contract

exchange of pledges that the relationship between lords and vassals was established within

fief

estate, included buildings, towns, and peasants

liege lord

the lord to which a vassal owed his first loyalty

manor

heart of a medieval economy, the lord's estate, includes multiples villages and land as well as peasants that worked there

serf

peasants on a manor who were bound there and not free

parish

local region

sacraments

sacred rites of the Church that the priest gave to people in the manor villages- belief that participating in them would lead to everlasting life with God

tithe

a tax equal to 10% of a person's income that the Church requests in order to support itself

secular

worldly- Church became the most powerful secular force in medieval Europe

papal supremacy

authority over all secular rulers, claimed by medieval popes

canon law

developed specifically by the medieval Church. applied to religious teaching, the clergy, marriages, and morals

excommunication

most severe and terrifying penalty that a person may face for disobeying Church law- people could not receive sacraments or a Christian burial- just one person

interdict

an order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and a Christian burial

nobles

obligated to give military service to the lord and protect vassal, were constantly at war and lived in castles

peasants

worked on land for the lord and provided other services and fees, were self sufficient and had harsh living conditions

charter

to protect their interests, merchants who set up a new town would ask the local lord or king for "written document"

capital

money for investment, spurred growth of banking houses

partnership

many merchants joined together in an organization

bill of exchange

a merchant deposited money with a banker in his home city and the banker issued a bill of exchange for cash in a distant city

tenant farmer

most peasants became this- they paid rent for their land and hired farm laborers

middle class

stood between nobles and peasants

usury

lending money with interest

guild

in medieval towns, merchants and artisans merchants and artisans formed these associations

apprentice

trainee to a guild master

journeyman

salaried worker

epidemic

outbreaks of rapid spreading disease

inflation

rising prices

heresy

ideas contrary to Church teachings

long bow

new weapon weilded by english archers that shot out 3 arrows at once

Pope Innocent III

author of "On the Misery of the Human Condition" about the hot, wormy hell, and the long list of negative adjectives about humans

Dante Alighieri

Author of the poem, "The Divine Comedy" about the 9 circles of hell

Jan van Eyck

Painted "The Last Judgement", an image of heaven, hell, and purgatory

Paul

The apostle who wrote a letter to the Romans to try and convert them to Christianity, showing an un-adulterated view of Christians

John Chrysostom

Writes a passage that demonizes Jews

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