Nutrition and Diet Therapy

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absorption

process of taking in nutrients by the body

amino acids

make up proteins

anorexia

loss of appetite

atherosclerosis

arteries are narrowed by accumulation of fatty substances on their inner surfaces

bland diet

easily digested food that does not irritate the digestive tract

calorie

amount of heat produced during metabolism

carbohydrates

major source of energy, starches, sugars, easily digested

cellulose

fibrous, indigestible form of plant carbohydrate; provides bulk and causes regular bowl movements

cholesterol

fatty substance found in body cells and animal fats; excess contributes to atherosclerosis

diabetic diet

body does not produce enough insulin; sugary food avoided

digestion

breaks down the food we eat

essential nutrients

composed of chemical elements found in the body; when used, replaced by food

fat-restricted diets

low fat intake; obese patients, patients with gallbladder and liver disease or atherosclerosis

fats

lipids, concentrated from energy, maintain body temp, cushions organs, aid in absorption of fat vitamins

hypertension

high blood pressure; excess amount of fat or salt in the diet

liquid diets

both clear and full; nutritionally inadequate and should only be used for short periods of time

lipids

also called fats

low-cholesterol diet

restrict foods with cholesterol, atherosclerosis and heart disease

low-residue diet

limits foods that are high in bulk and fiber

malnutrition

state of poor nutrition caused by poor diet or illness

metabolism

use of nutrients by the body

minerals

inorganic elements found in all body tissues, regulate body functions

nutrients

substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life

nutrition

digestion, metabolism, circulation, elimination

nutritional status

state of one's nutrition

obesity

excessive body weight 20 percent or more above the average recommended weight

osteoporosis

bones become porous and break easily because of long term deficiency of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D

protein diets

low-protein or high protein; low->patients with renal disease or allergies, high->children, growth delayed, pregnant women, pre or post operation, burns, fevers, infections

protein

build and repair body tissue, provide heat and energy, help produce antibodies

regular diet

balanced diet usually used for the patient with no dietary restrictions

sodium-restricted diet

avoid adding salt to food, for patients with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, edema

soft diet

foods must be easily chewed and easy to digest

therapeutic diet

modifications of the normal diet and are used to improve specific health conditions

vitamins

organic compounds essential to life, regulate body functions, repair body tissues

wellness

state of good health with optimal body function; good nutrition

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