ap world ch 2 classical china

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Scholar gentry

Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China. (Don't really know why they put it in this chapter but whatever)

Analects

The collected saying of Confucius, laid the foundation for China's enduring civilization. It idealized a strong rulers, the consolidation and centralization of power, a highly educated , EXCLUSIVELY male elite, that was responsible for the well being of all the subjects in the state. ("Confucious Says")

Syncretism

The fusion of cultural elements from more than one tradition. In colonial Latin America religious this was common, with both Amerindians and Africans blending their existing beliefs and rituals with Catholicism. There was a small amount of this developing during the classical period which would hint at what would occur much later.

Kong Fuzi

Also known in the West as Confucius, was an opinated middle aged scholar in the late 6th century BCE, went on a search for an "ideal ruler".` Attracted a number of disciples and published the "Analects". Never found an ideal ruler. He stressed respect for superiors(in a proper hierarchy) , moderation in behavior, veneration of custom and ritual , and love of wisdom. If these were accomplished then a solid political life would develop.

Shi

The emerging social scholar gentry that was developing in the classical period.; transformed into corps of professional bureaucrats because of knowledge of writing during Zhou dynasty.

Confucianism

A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.

Zhou Dynasty

The dynasty that displaced Shang Dynasty, Lasted from (1029 - 258 BCE); alliances with regional princes and families, overtook Yangtze River Valley (Middle Kingdom); invoked the "Mandate of Heaven" rationality in goverment; and beginnings of Mandarin Chinese language(Resulted in the largest single group speaking the same language in the world). They banned human sacrifice. Fell because of an inability to control vassals, external nomadic invaders which lead to a mini- assimilation of cultures and also to a new dynasty(Qin) and ruler Shi Haungdi who united ALL of china. (Think of this as China's Feudal Period)

Yangtze River Valley

A valley that the Zhou dynasty seized in order to expand territorial boundaries, also called middle earth.

Mandate of Heaven

Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou dynasty, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.

Shi Haungdi

The Chinese ruler(First Emperor) who came to power in 221 B.C. and unified and expanded China by ending internal battles and conquering rival states, established the brief Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE, which only lasted for 14 years. Name means the "the tiger". He vigorously organized and centralized the government into a bureaucracy , selected his officials from non-aristocratic backgrounds. He also built the Great Wall of China(3000 miles) to the North to protect against nomadic invaders.

Qin Dynasty

The Chinese dynasty (221 BC to 204 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall, Replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country. Burned a lot of books that would be "subversive" to his autocratic rule. There was the National Census, Great Wall of China, standardization of coinage, weights, and measures throughout the entire realm, and made all script length uniform. Shi Huangdi unpopularity lead to the dynastys downfall and a peasant family established the Han Dynasty

Han Dynasty

Imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) 400 YEARS and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization, succeeded the Qin Dynasty. Expanded into Korea, Indochina( Cambodia) , and central Asia. Was a very prosperous and large dynasty(established the FIRST Civil Service examinations), however the nomadic Huns overturned the dynasty, and marked the end of the classical period for chinese civilization.

Shang Dynasty

Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.Succeeded the Xia . Rulers and their relatives gave orders through a large network of cities

Sons of Heaven

The Zhou called themselves the __________, because they supposedly derived their lineages from the old Shang Rulers and heavens Mandate.

Mandarin Chinese

The main language of (ancient) China, had the most people speak it, with other languages spread out over China aswell. Mainly established by the Zhou rulers.

Era of Warring States

The period of Chinese history between c. 402 and 220 B.C.E. characterized by the breakdown of the central government and feudal war.; regional rulers made their own armies and fought for control; during this time Zhou Dynasty disentigrated.

Great Wall of China

One of the biggest building projects in history that was started by Shi Huangdi and took thousands of forced workers and hundreds of years to complete/built to protect the empire from northern invaders

Wu Ti

Han "Warrior Emperor" who greatly expanded the empire, (140-87 BCE); promoted peace; supported Confucianism; Conducted trade with the Parthian Empire in the Middle East. He also conducted the FIRST Civil service examinations in the world.

P'an Ku

Mythic ancestor whcih ancient chinese said was their creation myth, he created the world after breaking out of an egg.

Legalism

In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin rulers and early Han rulers invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. Not as popular as Confucianism, and did not seek popular approval anyway.

Daoism

Chinese philosophy based on the teachings of Laozi; taught that people should turn to nature and give up their worldly concerns, emphasized harmony and was largely a spiritual alternative to Confucianism, which actually developed at the same time in the last centuries of the Zhou dynasty. Remember Dao, humility, frugalty, learning/politics was IRRELEVANT under this philosophy.

Laozi

Also known as Lao Tsu; major Chinese philosopher; recommended retreat from society into nature; individual should seek to become attuned with Dao. Established Daoism

Dao

the central idea of Daoism also called "The Way"

Mencius

Confucius's greatest disciple; he has been called the second sage; , Also known as Meng Ko; stressed the consent of the common people.Said that humans were essentially GOOD and that governments required the consent of their subjects.

Xunzi

A Confucian follower, suggested humans are lazy(and naturally EVIL) and required a totalitarian government to make them good. Became an advocate of Legalism, or more accurately a mesh of legalism and Confucianism.

Five Classics

A corpus of texts considered authoritative by the early Confucians. They include poetry, historical, speeches, chronicles, ritual, and divination, Texts used to train scholars and civil servants in ancient China

Calligraphy

A style of beautiful or elegant handwriting that became a very important art form in early classical Chinese culture.

Religion

The lack of this(or at least the abundance) is the main reason that the Chinese classical period was not marked by a large amount of monuments( excluding the Great Wall of China/ Terracotta)

Terracotta Army

Soldiers and horses of the first Chinese emperor ( Shi Huangdi). The soldiers dated back to 210 B.C. discovered by a farmer. Vary in height and are usually 6 feet. They are all different and have different characteristics. Their purpose was to help rule another empire with Shi Huang Di in the after life. Made during Qin Dynasty

Seismographs

An instrument that records vibrations in the ground and determines the location and strength of an earthquake, first developed in classical period , specifically the Han Dynasty.

Patriarchalism

Ideas that social organization should be ordered with the male as the head of the family and institutions.

Mandarins

Member of the elite class of civil servants in Chinese government and the aristocracy during the classical period. (Highest Class), picture is a joke, couldn't find a better one.

Laboring Masses

The 2nd highest group in China's classical Era, included the peasants and the urban artisans who manufactured goods.

Mean People

The lowest and 3rd group in China's Classical Era, Were people without "meaningful skills". Performing artists and household slaves were included, this group was punished more harshly than any others and required to wear green scarves. <(Again the Picture is a joke)>

Paper

Was developed by the Chinese classical society in the Han Dynasty, far before it was created in Europe, it was an example of a large amount of technological innovation( like Pulleys, Ox drawn Plows, water powered mills etc etc)>

Xianyang

capital of the Zhou dynasty.

Feudalism

social organization created by exchanging grants of land (fiefs) in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty.

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