a very long DNA molecule and associated proteins, that carry portions of the hereditary information of an organism.
two strands of genetically identical chromosomes
the main microtubule organizing center of the cell
a pair of barrel-shaped organelles that make up each centrosome (not in plants)
help pull apart the cell during replication and are made up of micrtubules
small cluster of genetic information used to help promote variability in bacteria
sex cell (sperm or egg)
division of the nucleus
region of a prokaryotic cell where DNA is contained that is not bounded by a nuclear envelope
splitting into two genetically identical parts (used by bacteria)
protein around which DNA organize
type of cell containing paired chromosomes (2n)
type of cell containing unpaired chromosomes (n)
division of the cytoplasm
make up spindle fibers
ready duplicated chromosomes are composed of two sister chromatids held together by a _______
another name for mitosis
not in plants. Starlike structures of spindles protruding from the centriole (which is in the centrosome)
other than the small packet of DNA, the only way bacteria can have variation
move to the midpoint between the daughter nuclei. fuse forming cell plate; their membranes complete plasma memberanes of daughter cells. release molecules that signal the formation of plant cell walls (strengthened by cellulose fibrils)
cancer cells' ability to trick blood cells into providing sustenance for the growing cancer cells
relaxed threadlike form of DNA in between cell divisions
Phases of Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
only in animals. Place where the plasma membrane pinches ( )( ) (weak diagram)
only in platns; eventually becomes cell wall and is the point of division. [ 0 | 0 ] (weak diagram)
the life cycle of a cell
programmed cell death; cell suicide; termination due to mutation
the part of the cell cycle that generally takes about 75% of a cycle.
G1 and G2 stand for ________
the period in the cell cycle in which DNA are made.
tumor/ cancer causing agents
Chemicals, Radiation, Viruses
list 3 common carcinogens (alphabetical)
enzymes that cause apoptosis
cancer cells lack _______ and contact inhibition
hormones that under normal circumstances must be present to perform cell division.
binds to kinase to start cell division. Allows passage through "G" stages of cell cycle
takes a phosphate from ATP to trigger metabolic pathways, release energy and start cell division. Allows passage through "G" stages of cell cycle
these are a result of cyclin binding to kinase in the absence of a growth factor. Uncontrolled regions of cell growth.
these are the body's natural defense against cancer. They replace missing bits of code in the DNA and reduce the chance of mistake.
this starts to disappear during the prophase of mitosis and returns after the telophase.
the first thing to divide in cellular division.
other than plasmids, the only way to create variation in Binary Fission
new growth that invades and destroys tissues
A tumor that is disorganized but encapsulated and does not invade adjacent tissue.
A tumor that is moving around the body invading and destroying local tissuue and causing harm and tumors. (The bad kind)
migration of cancer cells throughout the body and tissues, Cancer cell able to migrate.
halts the cell cycle when the cell is need of repair.
type of cell that pauses its cycle after the G2 phase
muscle and nerve
types of cells that pause their cycles after the G1 phase
cancer cells lack differentiation and _______