If the hair is resistant, it will require a stronger _________________ solution in order to pre-soften the cuticle and allow absorption.
Alkaline waves or _______ waves are currently formulated with thiogolycolic acid, or its derivatives and ammonia, which creates a compound called ammonium thioglycolate.
Alkaline waves should be wrapped without tension because alkaline reforming lotion causes the hair to _______________.
_____________ perms are in the pH range of 6.9 to 7.2.
What do most acid waves use along with tension and waving lotion to process hair?
The main ingredient found in an acid wave is:.
To speed up the processing time, heat was added by placing a plastic cap on the client's head and placing her under a pre-heated dryer. This method of heat is called _________________
Acid waves are formulated with _____________________ which breaks down the disulfide bonds.
_________ waves cause minimal swelling, therefore it is essential that the hair be wrapped with firm, even tension.
_____________________ perms appeared on the market after endothermic perms and were self-timing and self- heating. An additive that created heat through a chemical reaction was mixed with a perm solution.
_________________ is when perm solution was left on too long; may look curly when wet, and frizzy when dry.
____________________ is when perm solution is not left on the hair long enough and produces a weak or limp curl.
A real benefit of working with a lower pH in an acid wave means that you avoid exposure to higher alkaline pH solutions and excessive hair swelling, which would need to be counteracted during neutralizing. However, as with alkaline waving, if the neutralizer is left on longer than specified ________ can occur.
blotting the hair with a towel
_____________ removes excess waving solution from the hair before neutralizing or rebonding.
How does the stylist remove excess water from the hair before applying the neutralizer?
2.5 to 7
Depending on the type of neutralizer, the pH can range from ________ to ______.
__________________ solution for alkaline waves bring down the pH of the hair and rebond the curl pattern to make it permanent.
Applying a ___________________ reduces the swelling caused by the alkalinity of the perm solution and hardens the bonds in the new shape.
The main ingredient found in most neutralizer is ______________ ________________, sodium perborate or sodium bromated