Leisure is not defined by....
The form or type of activity (no activity is leisure for everyone), The social context (who we're with if anybody), The physical context (where the activity takes place), The temporal context (both in terms of time of day/week/month/year it takes place and the time its required to participate)
Lack of necessity, derived form the Greek word licere which means "to be free", enjoyment or pleasure
the search for pleasure is instinctual and insatiable
social mechanisms that compel us to deny our need/drive for pleasure
as technology's availability and diversity increases, such as social networking, the time spent on leisure decreases
Growth and revival of cities leads to more leisure options, choices and more transportation. It does, however, also mean less green space. The "Busyness" of city life may decrease the time and energy for leisure
Because of highly developed transportation systems, going other places in the world and ones own country, is less expensive and is available to a wider group. For Leisure, this increases options, increases networking track as leisure leads to adaptation and exposure to others. This does mean the fall of authentic cultures
various conflicts increasing because of increasing diversity and contact with that diversity. E.G. religious beliefs may not match societal norms, sexual expression, alcohol and other drugs, sanctity of the Sabbath. Leisure may be restricted b/c of any religious groups beliefs
World Economic Integration
relationships between different regions of the world are expanding, especially economically. With that comes exposure to new forms of leisure and new opportunities. Cost of some leisure products decrease as they're produced more cheaply outside the US
society more open to expression of sexualness and diverse sexualities. In terms of leisure, people may feel less constrained to express the "who they are" though tensions still exist
economic system that emphasizes and values competition and consumption. In terms of leisure, capitalism is seen (by many) to give us more choices in products and services
Leisure, play and recreation are often seen as secondary to or not as important as work, family, community
Negative outcomes of no play
Don't develop social skills, and a sense of empathy for others
Positive Outcomes of play
Developing Curiosity, flexibility adaptable by exploring and allowing creativity, Using hands in play (by manipulating things) stimulates brain development, increased problem solving, enhances memory, human trust may defuse tension
adults retain their "immature" or child like qualities. Allows us to be playful and reap the positive outcomes of playfulness
Similarity of Brown and Book
both say play can serve no particular purpose (i.e. is more intrinsically motivated), increased productiveness, increased innovation
Difference of Brown and Book
Brown thinks about play "seriously" and as a neuro psychologist is interested in the scientific study of play, not a choice but a biological drive or imperative while article sees it as a choice (social construction), when playing, are becoming most creative our brains are developing while article presents the negative views and criticisms of too much leisure (laziness)
Psychological Perspective on Leisure
The primary defining dimension of leisure is a perception of freedom or choice. That is, in leisure, we are relatively more free to do what we want to do.
Secondary dimensions of leisure
Motivation: Intrinsic- participation for the joy or Extrinsic- reason external to activity
Novelty: High- unusual or Low- familiar
Intensity: High- requires engagement effort and concentration or Low- does not require much effort or concentration
Why is there a growing interest in Leisure?
Because work is increasingly not a source of fulfillment- it's just a job and they are worried about keeping it; work is not a source for feeling competent and satisfied but a source of income
something that occurs when the demands of the situation slightly exceed but don't overwhelm the skills of the individual. Allows individual to feel a sense of mastery and competence
Ethic of healthiness or fitness
should always be pushing ourselves to do more, be better, to grow, to develop skills further and/or new skill sets
small world connections or communities of like minded individuals with same passion or interest are developed. Gives us identity and connections with others. There are many "signs" that tell others you're part of a particular community, e.g. clothing, who you hang out with, body language, where you hang out etc. Once you spend the time and money to learn the skills needed for serious leisure, buy the equipment, travel where it occurs, you're unlikely to give it up and instead deepen your participation
is characterized by specialization- commitment to develop skills. Serious leisure is not what most people do most often and what people most enjoy is not what the do most often. Frequency is not what's enjoyable but what is most convenient, accessible and inexpensive
is someone who participates in serious leisure. a long-term commitment to developing appropriate skills, a high standard of performance, developing the skill for the experience rather than to make a living, constructing a set of values, resource expenditures, and schedules around activity etc.
High Intensity Leisure
Complexity= positively difficult because of multiple interacting factors or forces. For example, weight lifting proper form, breathing focus, social interactions. Presents endless challenges and may be context for flow. Often interacting with something larger than yourself that allows us to "transcend" ourselves- become better, Allows the expression of the whole self (Physical, mental, emotional, social)
How is Leisure Political
Businesses, parking garages vs. green space, what's allowed,
Basis for allocation of recreation resources?
cost, who is benefited and who is disadvantaged (neighborhood, population affected, health and safety)
Leisure is a political means to influence with power and privileges
People with a lot of power can use leisure to control those with little power and people with little power can use leisure to contest those with a lot of power. Roger smith and others had access to yacht clubs, outdoor dinner party hired unemployed workers to be statues, new jail party where wealthy can experience what its like to be in jail, Miss America only cared about people supporting her, star theater had 1/2 priced tickets in an attempt to distract the people from the unfair conditions, increased crime rate
a society where the task/ work of providing the basic necessities of life has become very easy b/c of technological and economical development. Shift from manufacturing based economy to service based economy, decline in cities as major population and economic centers and growth of suburbia and rururbia in an attempt to separate from work, gain more land, privacy, perceptions of safety, and quality of schools.
Knowledge and information predominate not manufactured goods.
the making of unnecessary/ unneeded things. Leads to creation of "False needs", lower cost and waste, work-spend cycle, idealogy of acquisition (more is better)
Leisure in Post-Industrial Society
Pressure to get one's self highly educated reduces time and energy for leisure, with labor saving devices you can get things done more quickly, education, work and income are directly proportional; central to economy, Americans spend 8% of income on leisure ($300 billion a year), Leisure is socially constructed