A political and military system based on the holding of land
The person who makes grants of land to another person
A person who receives land from a lord and pledges military services
A feudal ceremony in which a vassal receives land or a bishop takes office
The piece of land given to a vassal by a lord
A grant of money that a vassal gives to a lord
A small estate from which a lord's family gained its livelihood
A peasant who was bound to a manor and owed duties to the lord of the manor
Heavier plows, three-field system, new harness for horses
Three Field System
1/3 Fallow, 1/3 Wheat/Rye, 1/3 Barley/Peas/Oats/Beans
A person who lives in a walled town
In medieval France, people who live in burghs or towns rather than in rural areas
Fairs in which nearby manors would travel to. Cloth was the most common item
Fair held four times a year. People visited from far and wide
An association of people who worked at the same occupation
Merchants were the first to form this type of guild
Skilled artisans formed this kind of guild
Enforced standards by guilds
Works for a master of a craft for 3-12 years without pay
Final stage after apprenticeship
Leading bishops who choose the future pope
Marriage of Priests
first condition that reformers wanted to abolish, which allowed priests to have families
Second condition that reformers wanted to abolish, the buying and selling of church offices
Third condition that reformers wanted to abolish, in which ceremonies were performed by laymen
No church ceremonies could be performed in the offending ruler's lands
Church Law and Government
A "Church" Kingdom ran by a single ruler, the pope, from a central capital, Rome
The law of the church
Bishops were to use at least one fourth of all tithes to care for the sick and poor
A professed believer who maintains religious opinions contrary to those accepted by his or her church or rejects doctrines
A member of a Roman Catholic religious order who takes the same vows as a monk, but travels about preaching instead of living in a monastery
An institution of learning of the highest level
set of rules followed by a knight--courage, loyaly, devotion, courtesy toward and defense of women, protection of the poor, weak, and the needy
A youth being trained for knighthood
A young man of noble birth who as an aspirant to knighthood served a knight
A medieval martial sport in which two groups of mounted and armored combatants fought against each other with blunted lances or swords
A poet who sang the praises of noble ladies and the knights who loved them
A document, issued by a sovereign or state, outlining the conditions under which a corporation, colony, city, or other corporate body is organized, and defining its rights and privileges
The bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th century and killed an estimated 25 million people
The "great charter" of English liberties, forced from King John by the English barons in 1215
Battle of Hastings
The decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
Military expeditions undertaken by European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims
Joan of Arc
French national heroine and martyr who raised the siege of Orléans, died at the stake
Youngest son of Henry II; King of England from 1199 to 1216; succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother Richard I; lost his French possessions; in 1215 John was compelled by the barons to sign the Magna Carta
An established course for judicial proceedings or other governmental activities designed to safeguard the legal rights of the individual
A political unit consisting of an autonomous state inhabited predominantly by a people sharing a common culture, history, and language
Three Field System
600 acres divided into three 200 acres-wheat or rye for winter-barley, peas, beans, oats spring-fallow
City in Italy, ruled by Medici family from 1430 to 1737
Family that ruled Florence, Italy from 1430 to 1737
A mental view or outlook
The originator of the idea of a political pragmatism that says "the end justifies the means." Wrote The Prince, taught that it is better to be feared than loved.
Italian sculptor, architect, painter and poet in the period known as the High Renaissance
Leonardo de Vinci
Painter from Italy who painted the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper", considered the "Ideal Renaissance Man"
a variety of ethical theory and practice that emphasizes reason, scientific inquiry, and human fulfillment in the natural world and often rejects the importance of belief in God
Astronomer known for figuring out that the sun is the center of our solar system
The inventor of the astronomical telescope
Of or relating to a reference system based at the center of the sun
A controversial or unorthodox opinion or doctrine, as in politics, philosophy, or science
Known for his carefully detailed observations about nature and the physical world, which laid the groundwork for the modern study of biology
Priest who saw problems in the Roman Catholic Church, wrote and nailed 95 these to the church door. Started the protestant reformation and founded Lutheran church.
Payment taken in exchange for release from sins committed; "buying your way into prison"
Believed in predestination and leadership by the elect. Brought theocracy to Geneva
Swiss reformer who belived God spared him from the plague; preached in Zurich.
The king of England who had six wives and ruled England from 1509-1547; started the Anglican Church because the Church would not allow him to divorce his first wife
A government ruled by or subject to religious authority
Buying or selling of church offices or powers
Propositions for debate on the question of indulgences, written by Martin Luther and, according to legend, posted on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Ger., on Oct. 31, 1517
a logical prorocedure for gathering and testing ideas by forming a hypothesis and then testing
A movement in the 1500's to reform the Catholic Church and to work against Protestantism
moveable type helped make books (especially the bible) available to many people
killed 25 million (1/3) people in Europe
Document which limited the power of the king of England
Tudor-English Queen,, This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants
Queen of England-followed Mary I--also known as "The Virgin Queen"
Divine Right of Kings
The idea that rulers recieve their authority from God and are answerable only to God.
A system of government in which the ruling monarch has unlimited power
A government headed by a king or queen whose powers are limited by laws
A legislative body consisting of two houses (lords and commons) similar to that establizhed in the eleventh century in England
One of a group of thinkers in the early 1700's who believed in reason, liberty, natural law, progress, and human happiness
The period spanning the middle years of the eighteenth century, which was characterized by the use of reason and scientific method
Freedom from extrenal or foreign rule
Good and reasonable
A person who lived by nature's laws would find happiness
A agathering, held by a prominent hostess, made up of distinguished wirters, poest, artists, musicians, and political leader
In medieval France, people who liven in burghs, or towns, rather that in rural areas; according to Marx, the factory owning middle class
French philosopher, critic, and encyclopedist.
Englsih Philosopher influenced the Declaration of Independence.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher, author, and social reformer
English philosopher and mathematician: formulator of the law of gravitation.
Scottish economist--wrote the Wealth of Nations
English philosopher and author.
in some countries, the name of a legislature or the lower house of a bicameral legislature
the clergy in France
the nobles in France
made up of Bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers
a revolutionary of the poorer class: originally a term of contempt applied by the aristocrats but later adopted as a popular name by the revolutionaries.
The Great Fear
After the storming of the Bastille, many peasants rioted in cities around France
King Louis XVI
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution--killed by guillotine
Queen of France at the beginning of the French Revolution--killed by guillotine
Tennis Court Oath
Oath taken by the 3rd Estate after King Louis XVI calls the Estates General, but ignores the 3rd Estate
A Jacobin, led the Committee on Public Safety, responsible for the deaths of thousands; ultimately put to death by guillotine to end the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
After Louis XVI is killed, the Jacobin government ruled France using terror and death
Declaration of Rights of Man
a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal
Radical party during the French Revolution that used the guillotine to ensure that a new king would not rise
military and political leader of France at the end of the Revolution
Storming of the Bastille
Signified the beginning of the French Revolution on July 14, 1789--hungry peasants stormed the king's prison and released all of the prisoners
Liberty, Fraternity, Equality
Basic ideals of the French Revolution
Royal palace in France where Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette lived
Belief that the earth was the center of the universe--proposed by Aristotle and believed by the Catholic Church
The cost of a product plus a fair profit in the selling of something
Growth of Towns
People in the middle ages started moving away from rural farm areas and into the city to make a living.
A master craftsman or master tradesman was a member of a guild. In the European guild system, only masters were allowed to be members of the guild.
Defenses people designed to make castles safe.
Motte and Bailey
A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade.
Stone and Earth Castle
A type of defense for a castle that uses stone and earth.
A concentric castle is a castle with two or more concentric curtain walls, such that the outer wall is lower than the inner and can be defended from it.
Area in the Middle East that many religions believed to be sacred. Many Europeans traveled there during the Crusades.
A man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor.
Values of Renaissance
The following of traditional and long-established theories or styles
teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone
Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising churches with historical connections to the Church of England or similar beliefs, worship and church structures.
Officially exclude (someone) from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church
Mary Queen of Scots
as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed
Age of Reason
a movement in Europe from about 1650 until 1800 that advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of tradition and established doctrine
Assemblies from representatives of three sections of French population under pre-revolutionary monarch - nobles, clergy and others