← AP World History Chapter 7 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Harun al-Rashid Most famous of the Abbasid caliphs (786-809); renowned for sumptuous and costly living recounted in The Thousand and One Nights. Buyids Persian invaders of the 10th century; captured Baghdad an acted as sultans through Abbasid figureheads. Seljuk Turks Nomadic invaders from central Asia; staunch Sunni; ruled from the 11th century in the name of the Abbasids. Crusades Invasion of western Christians into Muslim lands, especially Palestine; captured Jerusalem in the First Crusade and established Christian kingdoms enduring until 1291. Saladin 12-century Muslim ruler; reconquered most of the crusader kingdoms. Famous in the Third Crusade along with Richard the Lionhearted of England. Ibn Khaldun Great Muslim Historian; author of The Muqaddimah; sought to uncover persisting patterns in Muslim dynastic history. Rubaiyat Epic poem of Omar Khayyam; seeks to find meaning in life and a path to union with the divine. al-Razi Classified all matter as animal, vegetable, and mineral. al-Biruni 11th-century scientist; calculated the specific weight of major minerals. Ulama Islamic religions scholars; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; opposed to non-Islamic thinking. al-Ghazali Brilliant Islamic theologian; attempted to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions. Sufis Islamic mystics; spread Islam to many Afro-Asian regions. Mongols Central Asian nomadic peoples; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last Abbasid caliph. Muhammad ibn Qasim Arab general who conquered Sind and made it part of the Umayyad Empire. Arabic Numerals Indian numerical notation brought by the Arabs to the West. Harsha 7th-century north Indian ruler; built a large state that declined after his death in 646. Bhaktic Cults Hindu religious groups who stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the gods or goddesses - especially Shiva, Vishnu, and Kali. Mira Bai Low-caste woman poet and songwriter in bhaktic cults of Hinduism. Shrivijaya Trading empire based on the Malacca Strait; its Buddhist government resisted Muslim missionaries; when it fell, southeastern Asia was opened to Islam. Malacca FLourishing trading city in Malaya; established a trading empire after the fall of Shrivijaya. Demak Most powerful of the trading states on the north Java coast; converted to Islam and served as a dissemination point to other regions. Latten Sails Large triangular sails that are attached to the masts by long booms or yard arms which extend diagonally high across both the fore and art portions of the ship. Sultan Word meaning "victorious"; came to designate Muslim rulers. Holy Land The region of present-day Israel; includes the city of Jerusalem, which is a holy city to Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Chinggis Khan Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khahan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to the conquest of most of the Islamic world. Hulegu Ruler of the Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinngis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257. Mamluks Turkic slave-warriors who ruled Egypt and defeated the Mongols to prevent their entry into northern Africa. Rajas Term used for Hindu kings. Sultans of Delhi Title of the Islamic imperial houses of India, which literally means princes of the heartland.