Chapter 6: Osseous tissue and Bone structure

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Are bones separate organs or just considered one organ?

bones are separate organs

bone are part of what system?

skeletal system

cartilages are part of what system?

skeletal system

ligaments are part of what system?

skeletal system

Are connective tissues part of the skeletal system?

yes

What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?

support
storage of minerals (calcium)
storage of lipids (yellow marrow)
blood cell production (red marrow)
protection
leverage (force of motion)

the skeletal system stores what 2 things?

Storage of minerals (calcium)
storage of lipids (yellow marrow)

The skeletal system produces what?

blood cell production (red marrow)

What system helps with leverage (force of Motion)

the skeleton system

support and protection is function of what system?

the skeleton system

what are the three idenifications of bones?

shape
internal tissues
bone markings

What are the six bone shapes?

long bone
flat bones
sutural bones
irregular bones
short bones
sesamoid bones

What bone is long and thin?

long bone

what bones are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes?

long bones

The humerus is an example of what kind of bone?

long bone

What bone are thin with parallel surfaces?

flat bones

What bones are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula?

flat bones

the parietal bone is an example of what kind of bone?

flat bones

what bones are only found in the skull?

sutural bones

what bones are small and irregular?

sutural bones

what bones are foun between the flat bone of the skull?

sutural bones

saggital sutur is example of what kind of bone?

sutural bones

What bones have a complex shapes?

irregular bones

The spinal vertebrae and pelvic bones are an example of what kind of bones?

irregular bones

What kind of bones are small and thick?

short bones

The ankle (tarsals) and wrist bones (carpals) are example of what kind of bone?

short bones

What kind of bones are small and flat?

sesamoid bones

What kind of bones are developed inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet?

sesamoid bones

The patelia is example of kind of bones?

sesamoid bones

what are the 3 types of bone markings?

depressions or grooves
projections
tunnels

what do call a bone marking that is along the bone's surface?

depressions or grooves

Where tendons and ligaments attach would have what bone markings?

projections

what bone markings would be at articuations with other bones?

projections

the place where blood and nerves enter bone, would be called?

the tunnels

the long bones are compriased of what 3 physis?

diaphysis
epiphysis
metaphysis

The shaft of a long bone would be called?

diaphysis

The wide part at each end of a long bone would be called?

epiphysis

which physis of a long bone are associated with articulation with other bones?

epiphysis

What is the name of the place where diapyhsis and epiphysis meet?

metaphysis

what pyhsis has a heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone?

diaphysis

The central space of the diaphysis is called?

the marrow cavity

what part of the diaphysis helps with storage and lessens weight of bone while still leaving the bone strong?

The marrow cavity

what part of the long bone is mostly spongy (cancellious) bone and covered with compact bone (cortex)?

epiphysis

what kind of bones resembles a sandwich of spongy bone, between 2 layers of compact bone with no marrow cavity?

flat bones

Dense, supportive connective tissue desribes what type of tissue?

Bone (osseous) tissue

Bone tissue can also be called?

osseous tissue

what tissue contains specialized cells and produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits (strength)?

Bone (osseous) tissue

what tissue is around collagen fibers for flexibility?

Bone (osseous) tissue

Bone (osseous) tissue dense matrix contains deposits of what?

calcium salts

Bone cells are located within what part of the dense matrix?

lacunae

bone cells within the luncunae are organized around "what" in dense matrix?

blood vessels

What forms pathway for nutreints and exchange nutrients and wastes?

canaliculi

Does the canaliculi have blood vessels going through it?

no

Covers outer surfaces of bones and consist of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers, is a characteristic of what part of bone (osseous) tissue?

periosteum

helps isolate bone and ties collagen fibers of bone directly into attached connective tissue (tendons/ligaments) is a charateristic of part of bone (osseous) tissue?

periosteum

What characteristic of bone (osseous) tissue gives a protective covering, helps with growth and repair?

periosteum

What makes up 2/3 of the bone matrix?

calcium phospate

what makes up 1/3 of the bone matrix?

protein fibers (collagen)

what are the 4 types of bone cell?

osteocytes
osteoblasts
osteoprogenitor cells
osteoclasts

a mature bone cells that main the bone matrix are called?

osteceocytes

which bone cell maintaines and recycles?

osteceocytes

what bone cells live in the lacunae and are between layers (lameliae) of the matrix?

osteceocytes

Which bone cell are connect by cytoplasmic etensions through canaliculi in lamellae?

osteceocytes

which bone cells do not divide?

osteceocytes

which bone cell maintain protein an mineral content of matrix, to help repair damaged bone?

osteceocytes

Which bone cell is associated with constantly tearing down and building up?

osteceocytes

Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (osteogenesis) describes what type of bone cell?

osteoblasts

which bone cell is associated with making new bone?

osteoblasts

matrix produced by osteoblasts, but not yet calcified to form bone, is called?

osteoid

when osteoblasts surrounded by bone and become osteocytes, is reffered to as?

osteoid

Mesenchymal stem cells that divid to produce osteoblasts describes which bone cell?

osteoprogenitor cells

what bone cell is associated with growth and repair?

osteoprogenitor cells

Which bone cell is located in inner, cellular layer of periosteum and the endosteum?

osteoprogenitor cells

which bone cell assist in fractur repair?

osteoprogenitor cells

which bone cell has giant, mutinucleate cells?

osteoclasts

clasts means?

chew

which bone cell dissolves bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis)

osteoclasts

which bone cells are derived from stem cells that produce macrophages?

osteoclasts

which bone cells secrete acids and protein-digesting enzymes?

osteoclasts

When bone building (by osteocytes) and bone recycling (by osteoclasts) are balanced, it creates what?

homostasis

When there is more breakdown than building, bones become what?

weak

what stimulates osteocytes to build bone?

exercise

what the basic unit of mature compact bone called?

osteon

When osteocytes are arranged in concentric lamellae it's called?

osteon

what is around a central canal containing blood vessels?

osteon

what is perpendicular to the central canal?

perforating canals

what carries blood vessels into bone and marrow?

perforating canals

lameliae wrapped around the long bone is called?

circumferential lamellae

what binds osteons together?

circumferential lamellae

what bone does not have osteons?

spongy bone

which bone matrix forms an open uetwork of trabeculae?

spongy bone

do trabeculae have blood vessels?

no

which marrow has lot of blood vessels?

red marrow

The space between trabeculae is filled with what type of bone marrow?

red marrow

what has blood vessels, forms re blood cells, and supplies nutrients to osteocytes?

red marrow

which marrow is located in some bones, and in spongy bone?

yellow marrow

why do we need yellow marrow?

because it stores fat

when the femur transfers weight from the hip joint to the knee joint, the femur becomes what in regards to weight?

a weight-bearing bone

what type of bones cause tension on the lateral side of the shaft and compression on the medial side?

weight-bearing bone

what two membrane cover compact bone?

periosteum and endosteum

periosteum membrane is located where on compact bone?

on the outside

endosteum membrane is located where on compact bone?

on the inside

What covers all bones except parts enclosed in joint capsules?

periosteum membrane

The periosteum is made up of what 2 layers?

fibrous layer and cellular layer

The fibrous layer is the outer or inner layer of the periosteum?

the outer layer

the cellular layer is the outer or inner layer of the periosteum?

the inner layer

what is the perforating fiber of the periosteum membrane?

collagen fibers

What connects with collaben fibers in bonee and with fibers of joint capsules, attached tendons, and ligaments?

periosteum

what functions to isolate bone from surrounding tissues, provide a route for circulatory and nervous supply, and participate in bone growth and repair?

periosteum

what has an incomplete cellular layer?

endosteum

what lines the marrow cavity?

endosteum

what covers trabeculae of spongy bone and lines central canals?

endosteum

does endosteum or periosteum provide gaps between cells?

endosteum

what contains osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts, endosteum or periosteum?

endosteum

is endosteum active in bone growth and repair?

yes

The humen bones grow until what age?

age 25

osteogenesis is what?

bone formation

the process of replacing other tissues with bone is called ossification or calcification?

ossification

The process of depositing calcium salts is calcification or ossification?

calcification

does calcification occurs during bone ossification and in other tissues?

yes

what are the 2 types of ossification?

intramembranous ossification
endochondral ossification

intramembranous ossification can also be called what?

dermal ossification

intramembranous ossification can also be called dermal ossification because it take place where?

the dermis

mandible and clavicle are considered what type of bones because of where they are produced?

dermal bones

There are how many main steps to intramembranous ossification?

3 main steps

Mesenchmal cells aggregate
-differentiate into osteoblasts
-begin ossification at the ossification center
-develop prjections called spicules
Is which step of intramembramous ossification?

step 1

When blood vessels grow into the area to supply the osteoblasts and spicules connect trapping blood vessels inside the bone, is which step of intramembranous ossification?

step 2

when spongy bone develops and is remodeled into osteons of compact bone, periosteum, or marrow cavities, is what step of intramembranous ossification?

step 3

ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartiage is intramembranous ossification or endochondral ossification?

endochondral ossification

do many or few bones originate as hyaline cartilage?

many bones

how many steps occur in growth and endochondral ossification of long bones?

6 steps

Condrocytes in the center of hyaline cartilage enlarge, form struts and calcify, causing chodrocytes to die and leave cartilage, is what step of endochondral ossification?

step 1

Blood bessels grow around the edges of the cartilage; cells in the perichondrium change to osteoblasts-producing a layer of superficial bone around the shaft which will continue to grow and become compact bone. is what step in endochondral ossification?

step 2

producing a layer of superficial bone around the shaft which will continue to grow and become compact bone. is example of what type of growth?

appositional growth

Blood vessels enter the cartilage; bringing fibroblasts that become osteoblasts; spongy bone develops at the primary ossification center. is what step of endochondral ossification?

step 3

which step of endochondral ossification does secondary possification centers form?

step 5

Remodeling creates a marrow cavity; bone replaces cartilage at the metaphyses. is which step of endochondral ossification?

step 4

capillaries and osteoblasts enter the epiphsis; creating 2 secondary ossification centers. is what step of endochondral ossification?

step 5

when the epiphysis fill with spongy bone; cartilage within the joint cavity is articulation cartilage; cartilage at the metaphysis is epiphyseal cartilage. is which step of endochondral ossification?

step 6

what type of growth happens in endochondral ossification?

appositional growth

when compact bone thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae is what type of growth in endochondral ossification?

appositional growth

when long bone stops growing, after puberty the epiphyseal cartilage does what?

disappears

when epiphyseal disappears, what forms?

epiphyseal lines

when osteoclasts enlarge marrow cavity; osteons from around blood vessels in compact bone means the bone is what?

a mature bone

what are the 3 major sets of blood vessels devloped in mature bones?

nutrient artery and vein
metaphyseal vessels
periosteal vessels

What is a single pair of large blood bessels that enter the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen in a mature bone?

nutrient artery and vein

which mature bone has more than one pair of nutrient artery and vein?

the femur

which blood vessels of the mature bones supply the epiphyseal cartilage and is where bone growth occurs?

metaphyseal vessels

Which blood vessels of mature bones provid blood to the superficial steons and secondary ssification centers?

periosteal vessels

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