Beethoven to the Beatles

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62 terms · UMD Class

Tone Quality

Choice of instrument or voice; the timbrel quality or the sound.

Range

Highest and Lowest pitches of a melody.

Register

General Pitch level of the melody ranging from very low to very high.

Length

Varying lengths of a melody from a very short, longer to continuous.

Contour

shape of a melody in terms of pitch repetition, stepwise movement and skips.

Prominence of Melody

Some melodies are heard above the accompaniment patterns while some melodies may just be part of the total fabric of the sound.

Motives

Characteristic melodic patterns that achieve structural importance through repetition.

Chord Outline

Pitches of melodies which outline chords

Embellishment

Some melodies are simple and direct while others are highly decorated.

Phrase Design

complete musical idea

Phrase Extensions

repeated phrase with or without embellishment, parallel period, contrasting period, and Independent phrases which are often placed in a Through-Composed form.

Harmony

Simultaneous combination of pitches wither consonant to give the listener a sense of repose or dissonant to give an impression of tension.

Triads

(major, minor, augmented, diminished), 7th 9th 11th 13th chords

Tonality

Hierarchy of chords around a central tone Brings you back to the cord.

Cadences

Patterns of two chords which appear at the ends of phrases some complete and some incomplete.

Modulation

Change of tonal center or key

Atonality

Shonberg, without tonality, all 12 notes of western music are equally treated without any focus on one tonal center over another.

Form

Structure of music which may be perceived on different levels ranging from the development of tiny motives to the scheme of large independent sections.

Sectional Form (Song Form)

Music constructed out of distinct sections
AB = Binary Form
ABA = Ternary Form

Variation Form

Structure consisting of a theme and a series of variations on it usually A A' A" A'" etc.

Sonata

Allegro Form developmental form usually a first movement in a multi-movement work

Free Forms

Free structural plan that do not follow the formal processes

Folk Music and Non-Western

Music traditionally transmitted through oral tradition

Gregorian Chant

monophonic singing developed in the early church flourishing

Early Secular Music

Non-sacred music initially generated by oral tradition, developed in 12th and 13th centuries

Gothic Period

Middle Ages - music characterized by intellectual type of polyphony. Working out each line independently-combined various languages

Renaissance "Rebirth"

Revival of interest in the philosophy and arts of ancient Greece and Rome. HUMANISM

The Baroque Period

derived from the Portugese word "baroco" which means balance and symmetry. Fondness for the large and grandiose, Sir Isaac Newton, Galileo, Major and Minor, solid tonal center, modulation techniques, Terraced Dynamics

Ornamentation

The addition of embellishment to a melody

Classicism

Age of Reason and Enlightenment. Reason not with was the new beacon. Sonata, Rondo, Theme, Variation, Scherzo

Strophic Songs

Most music, sectional forms... Song form. Melody with several verses of words

Chant

A single style without a regular meter

Recitative

A style of singing in opera which covers the story line in an economical and direct way.

Art Song

Musical setting of a text by a trained composer demonstrating the unity of words and music

Levels of Music Listening

sonic background, enhance the action in a motion picture, work songs, dance songs, music which enriches emotional and intellectual satisfaction

Essence of Music

1. Expressive impact 2. Knowledge of content and structure

Improvement of Listening Skills

attend concerts and write brief reviews for yourself, keep an open mind, develop musical memory, listen for structural detail, expressive impact and composer's intent

Rhythm

motion in music determined by duration of sounds

Beat

the basic rhythmic unit in a piece of music

Tempo

Speed of the pulse

Meter

Recurring pattern of beats in the space/time of one measure

Accent

Emphasis in music

Syncopation

Unexpected emphazsis in music

Polymeter & Polyrhythm

Simultanios combination of 2 or more meters and rhythms

Dynamics

The degree of volume

Nuance

Combination of subtle changes in volume, speed and articulation

Rubato

(robbed time) a slight deviation from the exact execution of the rhythm

Articulation/Phrase

how a single note or a group of notes is attacked and shaped

Timbre

Tone quality or tone color of a musical sound

Pitch

Highness or lowness of a sound

Interval

distance between pitches

Scale

Ladderlike succession f ascending and descending half step and whole step pitches in the context of an octave

Solfege

system of naming the notes of a scale by the syllables instead of letters

Mode

Synonomous to scale named with Greek terms

Theme

term used to designate the central idea of a piece

Imitation

repeat of a melody in another part

Inversion

change of melodic direction to recreate a mirror image

Retrograde reversal of a melody

reversal of a melody

Retrograde inversion

a melody reversed and turned up die down

Augmentation

melody repeated in longer note values

Diminution

melody repeated in shorter note values

Texture

Relationship amount the various note in a musical composition both together one after another: Monophonic, Heterophonic, Polyphonic, Homophonic

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