2 kinds of pattern
Patterns of Rhythm
Patterns of Sound (Rhyme, alliterations, etc.)
How a poem is organized (rhyme, meter, Sound f/x, rhythm and beat)
What the Poem means (Tenor, Emotions, Ideas, abstract stuff)
3 benefits of Patterns
1. Intellectually - helps make sense of things
2. Emotionally - can effect the way we feel
3. Physiologically - Our bodies physically accomodate patterns around us
What makes a pattern effective?
Expectation (repeated element)
Regular rhythm in a poem.
Metrical Feet = (Iamb, trochee, anapest, dactyl)
Stress on earlier syllable
Soft syllable before stressed syllable.
Shakespeare = Iambic Pentameter
Two soft syllables followed by one stressed syllable
Stressed syllable followed by two soft syllables
Pyrrhic and Spondee
Used for variation, to keep pattern interesting
Two soft syllables)
Two stressed syllables
3 feet per line
4 feet per line
5 feet per line
The pattern that the meter is expected to follow
Iambic Trimeter = "Ideal" Meter
How does the poem break from the "ideal" in interesting ways?
Allows for expressive flexibility
Poetry can improve...
Comfort with ambiguity
"Sad" and "Bad"
"Truck" and "luck"
"Sad" and "Bed"
"Truck" and "Clutch"
Sonnet = Problem Solving devices
3 quatrains + Couplet
Q1 (Issue)...Q2 (Comp. #1)...Q3 (Comp #2)...
A 4 line unit
2 line unit at the end of English Sonnet
Couplet = the Resolution
Petrarchan Italian Sonnet
Octave + Sestet
Raises the issue and complication
The shift or turn in the poem
Form says "So what?" to the poet
Effort at resolution
Answer to the question "So what?"
English Sonnets v. Italian Sonnets
Italian Sonnets older than English sonnets
English is rhyme poor...Italian has more naturally rhyming sounds.
English needs more flexible rhyme scheme
(ABAB CDCD) v. (ABAB ABAB)
19 lines of Iambic Pentameter w/ refrains
5 tercets + 1 quatrain
a string of words all begin with same sound
a string of words all with a common vowel sound
(beginning, middle or end)
a string of words all with a common consonant sound
(beginning, middle or end)
Several trochees in a row
Several iambs in a row
-Metaphor = Vehicle + Tenor
-The heart and soul of poetry
-A comparison of two dissimilar things w/out "like" or "as" ("Love is a rose.")
-Helps to paint a picture of something unfamiliar using thing that are familiar
"Who is speaking to whom under what circumstances?"
-Setting of the situation
-Speaker that is NOT the poet
-The literal (common knowledge); Dramatic situation
-Should be identified before the tenor (Love)
The abstract and unfamiliar (Rose)
Implies something more than what is being said (ex. metaphor)
Group of lines forming a basic unit in a poem
When you compare two nouns that are unalike, with "like" or "as."
(ex. "Love is like a rose.")
Language that doesn't require interpretation (Dramatic Situation, Vehicle)
I heard a fly buzz
My papa's waltz
That time of year...
My Mistress's Eyes...
The World is too Much with Us