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________ is the long-term (usually 30 year) average weather for a particlular place.

Climate

________ is the current condition of the atmosphere.

Weather

The ________ classifies climates into sic categories, tropical humid, dry, mid-latitude, severe mid-latitude, severe mid-latitude, polar and highland.

Climate Classification System

________ is the gradual increase of the Earth's average temperature.

Global Warming

According to many scientists, global warming is primarily due to the ________.

Greenhouse Effect

If temperatures continue to increase due to global warming, scientists expect major climatic changes, including the rise of ________ due to ice melting at the poles.

Ocean Levels

In Peru, archaeologtists and scientists have found a great agricultural laboratory which allowed the ________ civilization to experiment with different climates..

Inca

The 2 most polluted cities in the world are ________.

Cairo, Egypt and Delhi, India

________ has two main sources, anthropogenic (man-made) and natural.

Air Pollution

________ sources of air pollution include factories, cars, motorcycles, ships, wood-burning, oil refining, chemicals, consumer product emmissions like aerosol sprays, methane from garbage in landfills.

Man-Made

________ sources of pollution may include dust, methane from human and animal waste, radon gas, smoke from wildfires and volcanic activity.

Natural

Average air pressure is ________ at sea level.

14.7 pounds per square inch

________ is composed of the spectrum of colors and when it strikes the Earth's atmosphere, ultraviolet and blue light are scattered by particles in the atmosphere and remain in the sky. Our eyes can't see ultraviolet light so the sky appears blue. This is why the sky is blue.

Sunlight

How many layers are in the Earth's atmosphere?

Five: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesophere, Thermosphere, Exosphere.

At night, AM radio waves bounce off the _________ of the ionosphere and can travel thousands of miles, but during the day the ________ of the ionosphere is present which absorbes radio waves. This is why you cn hear an AM radio station at night, but not during the day.

"F" Layer (at night) and "D" Layer (during the day)

________ waves are "line of site" which means they can only travel as far as their power and the height of their radio antenna will allow.

FM Radio Waves

The higher you go, the less _________ there is available. At 15,000 feet it is half of what it is at sea level.

Air Pressure

A ________ system is more likely to bring rain and bad weather.

Low-Pressure System

A ________ system is usually drier and does not bring much rain.

High-Pressure System

________ clouds are feathery and wispy; they are made of ice crystals and occur at high elevations.

Cirriform Clouds

________ clouds are sheet like and spread out across the sky.

Stratiform Clouds

________ clouds are the ubiquitous cloud, puffy and individual; they can be harmles or they can be the source of torrential storms and tornadoes.

Cumuliform Clouds

________ is a percentage of the amount of the sun's energy that is reflected back from the surface of the Earth.

Albedo

Overall, about _____ % of the sun's energy bounces off the Earth and its atmosphere and travels back into space.

33 %

At any given time, about ________ of the planet is covered by clouds.

1/2 (one half)

________ are narrow lines of clouds that usually evaporate rather quickly and can turn into Cirrus clouds if the air is close to being saturated with water vapor.

Contrails

When air conditions are right and it's sufficiently moist, the ________ from airplanes often creates condensation trails, known as contrails.

Exhaust

The ________ is a natural process of the atmosphere that traps some of the sun's heat near the Earth.

Greenhouse Effect

The ________ is a band of swiftly moving air located high in the atmosphere.

Jet Stream

The ________ is part of the stratosphere, that lies about 10 to 30 miles above the surface of the Earth.

Ozone Layer

________ is very important to life on the planet because it shields us from most of the damaging ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

Ozone

A hole has developed in the ozone layer over _________ and has been responsible for increased ultraviolet radiation levels.

Antarctica

As the hole in the ozone layer grows, it will increase the amount of harmful ________ reaching the Earth, causing cancer, eye damage, killing crops and organisms in the ocean.

Ultraviolet Light

Since 1975 scientests believe that more than _____ % of the ozone layer has disappeared.

33 %

When ________ rise up in the atmosphere to the ozone layer, ultraviolet rays break them down into bromine and chlorine, which destroy ozone molecules.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

It's much more wet on one side of a mountain than on the other because of a process known as ________. It causes air to rise up the side of a mountain range and cool, creating storms.

Orographic Precipitation

When the moisture in the air is squeezed out by orographic precipitation, the dry side of the mountain experiences a ________ effect.

Rain Shadow

________ is a large patch of warm water that moves between the eastern and western Pacific Ocean and lasts for 4 years in each.

El Nino

When the ________ of El Nino is near South America, it affects the weather in the southwestern United States by increasing rainfall and is responsible for changes in weather throughout the world.

Warm Water

The El Nino phenomenon was discovered by Peruvian fisherman who named it in honor of the Christmas season. The name El Nino means ________ in Spanish in honor of the Christ child.

The Baby Boy

An ________ is a thick column of ice, sometimes hundreds of feet long, that is produced by drilling a circular pipe-like device into thick ice and then pulling out the cylindrical piece. They provide scientists with important clues about past climates.

Ice Core Sample

Air trapped in the ice remains there for thousands of years, so when scientists collects ice cores they can analyze the air to determine the ________ of the atmosphere at the time the ice was formed.

Composition

Inland areas of a continent experience _________ which is when areas of a continent that are distant from the ocean have greater extremes in temperature than places closer to an ocean.

continentality

________ are high-pressure regions which are warm and don't have much wind.

Horse Latitudes

The process known as ________ which turns land into desert results from such activities as overgrazing, inefficient irrigation systems and deforestation

Desertification

The air near the Earth's surface is primarily _________ and _________.

Nitrogen and Oxygen

Temperature in Fahrenheit can be converted to Celsius by ____________.

(T - 32) x 5 Then divide by 9

Temperature in Celsius can be converted to Fahrenheit by __________.

(T + 32) x 9 then divide by 5

If a high temperature is the coldest high temperature for that day or month it is called a new ________.

Low High

If a low temperature is the warmest low temperature for that day or month it is called a new ________.

High Low

The United States claims three world weather records ___________, ___________, ___________

Highest Surface Wind, Greatest Average Yearly Precipitation, Heaviest 42-Minute Rainfall

The ________ in the data for the world records of weather refect the length of time that we use to measure weather phenomena.

Discrepancies

________ areas have an increased likelihood of precipitation during the work week because intense activity from factories and vehicles produce moisture in the atmosphere.

Urban Areas

A ______ chance of rain means that there is a 4 in 10 chance that 0.001 of an inch of rain will fall.

40 %

Cities have higher temperatures due to an effect known as the ________.

Urban Heat Island.

_________ are localized atmospheric phenomena that produce heavy rain, thunder and lightning and sometimes hail.

Thunderstorms

________ is caused by many sources such as natural pollutants such as dust, smoke and pollens and human pollutants with chemicals due to industrial activity.

Air Pollution

________ is simply caused by the movement of air from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. The greater the difference in pressure, the faster the wind blows.

Wind

The wind blows from the ________ to the ________.

West to East

________ are winds flow at mid-latitudes from west to east around the Earth.

Westerlies

________ are winds that flow from the ocean to the continent during the summer and from the continent to the ocean in the winter.

Monsoons

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