Society of the Cincinnati
-Former Continental Army offices club, where membership would be hereditary.
-The public was against this because their ideas were un-republican and against the revolution.
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
A movement that led to the end of the state supported Anglican Church in 1786.
An ideology that justified womens' presence in politics. Said that women encouraged civic virtue by being responsible teaches of their children by instilling strong republican beliefs in them.
Northwest Ordinance, 1783
Defined a process where new states could be admitted in the union. Allowed religious freedom in northwest territory. Prohibited slavery in northwest territory. Said Indians were to be treated equally (not really).
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provided survey and sale of northern Ohio territory. Allowed an orderly settlement because the area was divided equally into townships.
Shays ' Rebellion
During a depression in 1785-1789 Daniel Shays' led a group of MA farmers to revolt against creditors because they didn't want to loose their land due to high taxes and a shortage of cash.
If people took an active part in governance then the republic would survive.
Fear that the people would take over the control of the government.
Representation in Congress by the population of the states.
New Jersey Plan
Representation in Congress by equal amounts of votes for each states.
A Bicameral Legislature in which the Lower house (House of Reps) would be proportionate to state population and the upper house (Senate) would have two reps for each state.
-For every 5 slaves, 3 will be counted in the population.
-Escaped Slaves would be returned to their masters
The federal Government can only tax imports
The combination of House of Representatives and Senate for each state indirectly voting for the presidency.
Checks and Balances
Three branches of government that keep each other from becoming too powerful by separation of powers. (Executive, Legislative, Judiciary)
People who opposed the Ratification of the Constitution, led by Thomas Jefferson.(Small farmers, Artisans,etc.)
-Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government in the Constitution.
-Written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
The "Critical Period"
The period where The Articles of Confederation couldn't carry out threats against foreign enemies or pass trade regulations. The paper money in the colonies was almost worthless, and Congress could not pay back debts because they couldn't tax.
The officers of the Continental Army had gone without pay, and they met in New York to address Congress about their pay and almost rebelled against congress. George Washington promised that they would be paid
Jay-Gardoqui Treaty 1785
-Treaty that said that the USA wouldn't be allowed to use the Mississippi and in return got favorable trading rights on the east coast.
-Made Southerners nearly secede from the Union and was heavily rejected.
Annapolis Convention 1786
Called to resolve the issues of the AOC; Only 5 states sent delegates, they met over a few days to discuss but decided there wasn't enough of them
Philadelphia Convention 1787
This meeting was held "for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation." Instead the attendees decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation and create a new plan for government-
Judiciary Act of 1789
-Created federal courts in each state; affirmed that the Supreme Court had final say
-Set number of Supreme Court Judges at 6
People appointed by the president to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
First Bank of The USA
A federal Bank that would handle the government's funds; Created by Alexander Hamilton
The federal government can make all laws that are necessary and proper. (Bank of USA)
Bill Of Rights
A statement of fundamental rights and privileges (the first ten amendments to the Constitution).
The Federal Government will assume the state's Revolutionary War debts.
Tax on whiskey distilleries that was to help pay for assumption of war debts.
A protest caused by tax on liquor, it tested the will of the government and Washington's quick response showed the new government's strength.
Jeffersonian Republicans, Republicans, etc., Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
-French citizen who came to America and tried to recruit Americans to invade Spanish Florida and Louisiana.
-Embarrassed the pro-French and was asked to stop by Washington
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
Washington proclaimed official neutrality in the war between England and France.
Treaty of Greenville
-Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
-Added Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee to the Union
Commercial Treaty negotiated by John Jay over British seizure of US ships, and debts owed to British merchants. It was looked at as betrayal to the French
Treaty between the United States and Spain that changed Florida's border, made it easier for American ships to use the port of New Orleans, and allowed American use of the Mississippi.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
A state of semi-war with France.
A 1797 French attempt to bribe the United States by demanding money before discussing French seizure of neutral American ships and issues created by the Jay Treaty.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Allowed the president to deport foreigners and lengthened naturalization to 14 years. Imposed heavy fines and imprisonment for people who spoke out against the government
Virgina and Kentucky Resolutions
Written by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared
that states could rule federal laws unconstitutional, voiding them.