Ch. 13 - Pathology

88 terms by tzsilznarf 

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anisocytosis

cells are unequal in size

hypochromia

cells have reduced color (less hemoglobin)

macrocytosis

cells are large

microcytosis

cells are small

poikilocytosis

cells are irregularly shaped

spherocytosis

cells are rounded

dyscrasia

any abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood

anemia

deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin

aplastic anemia

failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow

hemolytic anemia

reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction

pernicious anemia

lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body

sickle cell anemia

hereditary condition characterized by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and by hemolysis

thalassemia

inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background

hemochromatosis

excess iron deposits throughout the body

polycythemia vera

general increase in red blood cells (erythremia)

hemophilia

excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors necessary for blood clotting

purpura

multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin

leukemia

increase in cancerous white blood cells

acute myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (AML)

immature granulocytes (myeloblasts) predominate

acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

immature lymphocytes (lymphoblasts) predominate

chronic myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (CML)

both mature and immature granulocytes are present in large numbers in the marrow and bloodstream

chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

abnormal numbers of relatively mature lymphocytes predominate in the marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen

granulocytosis

abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood

mononucleosis

infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes

multiple myeloma

malignant neoplasm of bone marrow

antiglobulin test

test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes

bleeding time

time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound

coagulation time

time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube

complete blood count (CBC)

determination of numbers of blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and red cell values - MCH, MCV, MCHC

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma

hematocrit (Hct)

percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood

hemoglobin test (H, Hg, Hgb, HGB)

total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood

platelet count

number of platelets per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

prothrombin time (PT)

test of the ability of blood to clot

red blood cell count (RBC)

number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

red blood cell morphology

microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red cells

white blood cell count (WBC)

number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

white blood cell differential [count]

percentages of different types of leukocytes in the blood

apheresis

separation of blood into component parts and removal of a select portion from the blood

blood transfusion

whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient

bone marrow biopsy

microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle

hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

peripheral stem cells from a compatible donor are administered to a recipient

abbr: Ab

antibody

abbr: ABMT

autologous bone marrow transplantation - patient serves as his or her own donor for stem cells

abbr: ABO

four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O

abbr: ALL

cute lymphocytic leukemia

abbr: AML

cute myelogenous leukemia

abbr: ANC

absolute neutrophil count - this is the total WBC times a measure of the number of neutrophils present in the blood

abbr: ASCT

autologous stem cell transplantation

abbr: bands

immature white blood cells (granulocytes)

abbr: baso

basophils

abbr: BMT

bone marrow transplantation

abbr: CBC

complete blood count

abbr: CLL

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

abbr: CML

chronic myelogenous leukemia

abbr: DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation - bleeding disorder marked by reduction in blood clotting factors due to their use and depletion for intravascular clotting

abbr: diff

differential count (white blood cells)

abbr: EBV

Epstein-Barr virus; cause of mononucleosis

abbr: eos

eosinophils

abbr: EPO

erythropoietin

abbr: ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

abbr: Fe

iron

abbr: G-CSF

granulocyte colony-stimulating factor - promotes neutrophil production

abbr: GM-CSF

granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor - promotes myeloid progenitor cells with differentiation to granulocytes

abbr: g/dL

gram per deciliter

abbr: GVHD

graft-versus-host disease - immune reaction of donor's cells to recipient's tissue

abbr: HCL

hairy cell leukemia - abnormal lymphocytes accumulate in bone marrow, leading to anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and infection

abbr: Hct

hematocrit

abbr: Hgb, HGB

hemoglobin

abbr: H and H

hemoglobin and hematocrit

abbr: HLA

human leukocyte antigen

abbr: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM

immunoglobulins

abbr: lymphs

lymphocytes

abbr: McH

mean corpuscular hemoglobin - average amount of hemoglobin per cell

abbr: MCHC

mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration - average concentration of hemoglobin in a single red cell

abbr: MCV

mean corpuscular volume - average volume or size of a single red blood cell

abbr: mm3

cubic millimeter

abbr: mono

monocyte

abbr: polys, PMNs, PMNLs

polymorphonuclear leukocytes; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

abbr: PT

prothrombin time

abbr: PTT

partial thromboplastin time

abbr: RBC

red blood cell; red blood cell count

abbr: sed rate

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

abbr: segs

segmented, mature white blood cells (neutrophils)

abbr: SMAC

Sequential Multiple Analyzer Computer - an automated chemistry system that determines substances in serum

abbr: µL

microliter

abbr: WBC

white blood cell; white blood cell count

abbr: WNL

within normal limits

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