APUSH Terms Chapter 8

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Albert Gallatin

Swiss-born financier chosen as Secretary of the Treasury during Jefferson's term as president.

Barbary War

The Barbary States (Tangier, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis) preyed on commercial shipping and received tribute from nations trading in the Mediterranean. Tripoli captured the U.S. frigate Philadelphia and held its crew for ransom. A naval blockade by the U.S. ended hostilities.

Battle of Horseshoe Bend

The Creek Nation resisted white settlers' advance on Indian land. Warriors were crushed by General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee militia

Berlin and Milan Decrees

Decrees by Napoleon which would not allow any ships to trade with Britain. Paper blockade of all European ports.

Burr Conspiracy

1806 plan to create a new nation in Mexico and the Louisiana Territory. Reported to Jefferson who called for ____'s arrest and trial for treason. Trial held by John Marshall, no significant evidence produced. ____ acquitted and freed; exiled in Europe.

Continental System

A paper blockade imposed by Napoleon in retaliation to Britain's commercial regulations. Closed all European ports to British trade and any neutral vessels carrying British goods were liable to seizure.

Embargo Act

Act passed in 1807 which prohibited U.S. merchant vessels from anchoring at any foreign port. Hurt American economy more than economies of Britain and France.

Fletcher v. Peck

The Marshall Supreme Court upheld the rights of the original purchasers in the Yazoo controversy. Legislative fraud didn't impair private contracts. Georgia assambely didn't have the right to take back land already sold. Upheld the Supreme Court's authority to rule on the consitutionality of state laws.

General Andrew Jackson

General who led Southern troops against the British in 1814. Stopped the English attempt to control the Mississippi River at the Battle of New Orleans.

General William Henry Harrison

Governor of the Indiana Territory who defeated Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe.

Hartford Convention

Meeting of a group of New England Federalists who discussed possible amendments to the constitution.

Henry Clay

A Kentucky congressman who served as speaker of the House. Member of the War Hawks.

James Monroe

Helped to accomplish the purchase of the Louisiana Territory along with Robert Livingston. Later became Secretary of State under Jefferson.

James Wilkinson

Commander of the U.S. Army who accepted a role in Aaron Burr's conspiracy. Later denounced Burr and informed Jefferson of the conspiracy.

John C. Calhoun

Influential War Hawk during the early nineteenth century.

John Marshall

Federalist Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835. Made many influential decisions which often gave more power to the Supreme Court by allowing it the power of judicial review.

Judicial review

The doctrine under which the decisions of the executive and legislative branches are subject to review from the judicial branch.

Leopard/Chesapeake

A British ship off the coast of VA commanded an American warship to submit to a search for deserters. The American ship refused so the British opened fire killing 3 wounding 18. Violated America's sovereignty.

Louisiana Purchase

France sold the Louisiana Territory to the U.S. for $15 million in 1803.

Macon's Bill Number Two

The US would lift trade restrictions against Britain and France if they agreed to honor U.S. neutrality.

Marbury v. Madison

A "midnight" judge, William Marbury, complained that Madison wouldn't deliver his commission and sought redress in the Supreme Court. John Marshall concluded that the Supreme Court had no jurisdiciton over such matters. The first time the Supreme Court asserted its right to judge the constitutionality of congressional acts.

Meriwether Lewis, William Clark

Explorers appointed by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory in 1804. Took notes on the flora and fauna and Native American encounters; helped by Sacagewea.

Non-Intercourse Act

Act passed by Congress in 1809 to replace the Embargo Act. Allowed Americans to trade with all foreign nations except France and Britain.

Oliver Hazard Perry

Destroyed a British fleet at Put-in-Bay in the Battle for the Great Lakes.

Orders in Council

Paper blockade which closed all ports under French control and confiscated any American ship going to Europe that didn't stop first in Britain.

Peaceable coercion

Policy created by Jefferson that kept the U.S. ships in their ports if Britain and France refused to respect the rights of neutral carriers. Harming the U.S. more than Britain and France.

Robert Livingston

Helped to accomplish the purchase of the Louisiana Territory along with James Monroe.

Samuel Chase

Federalist judge who delivered an allegedly treasonous speech. Jefferson persuaded the Republican controlled House of Representatives to remove him. Senate acquitted defendant of all charges based on lack of evidence by prosecutor.

Tecumseh

Shawnee Indian who, along with The Prophet, organized a large confederacy to prevent the American advance westward.

Tertium Quids

Also known as "the good old republicans". Group radical Republicans led by John Randolph and John Taylor. Said Jefferson's foreign and domestic policies sacrificed virtue for pragmatism.

The Prophet

Shawnee Indian who, along with Tecumseh, organized a large native confederacy to prevent the American advance westward.

Toussiant L'Ouverture

Leader of the Haitian revolution. Forced to resign as governor and deported to France when Napoleon sent troops to restore order.

Treaty of Ghent

Treaty that ended the War of 1812. Signed by the US and Britain in Belgium in 1814. Ended hostilities, but neither side experienced gains or losses. Considered a victory by Americans.

War Hawks

Aggressive nationalists who wanted war against Britain. Led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.

Yazoo Land Fraud

The Georgia legislature sold 35 million acres of western land to private companies at bargain prices. Led to the Fletcher v. Peck Supreme Court case.

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