Chapter 6

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41 terms · Ancient greece

Peninsula

A area of land almost completely surrounded by water and connected to the mainland by a narrow strip of land

Acropolis

The fortified or strengthened hill of an ancient Greek city

Aristocrat

A member of a rich and powerful family

Tyrant

A ruler who takes power by force

Democracy

A form of government in which citizens govern themselves

City-states

Villages that join together close to an acropolis

Geography of Greece

A peninsula, mountainous, and small rocky islands

Two early Greek civilizations

Minoans and Mycenaeans

Minoans

3000 to 1100 BC
Bronze Age
Lived on the Island of Crete
Sea traders
Had an advanced culture
Defeated by Mycenaeans

Mycenaeans

1400 BC
Lived on the mainland
Gained their power thru trade and conquering

Greek Dark Ages

1100 BC to 750
People were poor
Not a lot of trading

Rule by Aristocrats, the Tyrants, the Democracy

Started 750 BC
Athens was most fully developed democracy
Only men could be citizens
594 BC Solon ruled

Oracle

In ancient Greece a sacred site where a god or goddess was consulted; any priest or priestess who spoke for the gods

Philosopher

Someone who uses reason to understand the world, in Greece the earliest philosophers used reason to explain natural events

Tragedy

A type of serious drama that usually ends in disaster for the main character

Tribute

A regular payment made to a powerful state or nation by a weaker one

Golden Age Characteristics

479 - 431 BC
Philosophers and arts flourished
Democracy reached it's highest point
Athens was wealthy, the collected tribute payments

Religious beliefs

Greeks worshipped a family of gods known as Twelve Olympians
Zeus was king of Gods
Built temples
Went to oracles which were sacred sites for advice

3 important philosophers

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle

Parthenon

A temple for the goddess Athena
Temples were built to honor gods
Located in Acropolis the religious center of Athens

Arts in Greece

Temples For their Gods ( like Parthenon)
Dramas (tragedies)

Athens

Citystate in ancient Greece; capital of modern day Greece

Agora

A public market and meeting place in an ancient Greek city

Vendor

A seller of goods

Slavery

Condition of being owned by someone else and forced to work

Public life

Boys went to school
Men went to the Agora
There were public buildings, like prisons

Private life

Homes were plain
Simple meals
Women's stayed at home with no rights

Helot

A member of a certain class of servants in ancient Sparta

Sparta

A city state in southern part of ancient Greece

Peloponnesian War

A war fought between Athens and Sparta in ancient GreecE involving almost every other Greek city state; Athens was weakened by a plague

Plague

A wide spread disease

Blockade

An action taken to isolate an enemy and cutoff it's supplies

Sparta life

Harsh life
Equal army to Athens
Not as many achievements as Athens
Conquered neighboring city states and people became helots or servants
Children were trained as soldiers

Battle of Marathon

Athens vs Persia
Persia had more soldiers but lost

Barbarian

A wild uncivilized person

Assassinate

To murder for political reasons

Alexander the Great

A king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 BC; conqueror of Persia and Egypt and invader of India

Hellenistic

Describing Greek history or culture after the death of Alexander the Great including the three main kingdoms formed by the breakup of Alexanders empire

Alexanders empire

Son of King Philip
He conquered many cities
After ruling for only 13 yrs he died

Hellenstic Age

After Alexanders death the empire declined
Broke into three main kingdoms which were like Greek cities

Egypt

Alexandria was the capital; greatest city
Learning capital of the greek world; big library
Math and science flourished (geometry and astronomy)

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