Plato (Nativism, nature) vs. ________ (Philosophical Empiricism, nurture)
The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn (Plato)
All knowledge is acquired through experience (Aristotle)
Rene Descartes, body is separate from soul/mind
Rene Descartes (Dualism) vs. _______(Empiricist)
Rejected notion that soul is
divorced from the body,Believed all knowledge & thought derived from sensory experience, Believed in model of the mind as
a blank slate--we are the product
of our sensory experience
Structuralist, Moved Psychology
from Philosophy into a science.
Wundt, Study consciousness, breaking down
elements of thought, Person's description of the sensations they experience in response to some stimulus (e.g., a picture), and try to break those descriptions down into "basic elements"
Wundt's student1st Psychology lab in United States.
Wundt (Structuralism) vs. __________(Functionalism)
William James, the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment (natural selection)
Structuralism (Wundt) vs. ___________(Gestalt Psychology)
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
the approach to understanding human behavior that emphasized the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
Unconscious Drives (Freud) vs _________ (Abraham Maslow)
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasized the positive potential of human beings, determined by person's capacity
to choose how to think and act.
John Watson, an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior, Psychology should study behavior, not the
unobservable "mind," No fundamental differences between human and animal behavior
The most vocal advocate of behaviorism with reinforcement
The Cognitive Revolution
Use behavior to reveal mind
an approach to psychology that emphasizes internal mental processes: No one has ever
seen a memory. But we can infer their
existence from behavior
Study: How does the brain give rise to the mind?