Promoted through students engaging in hands-on activities and experimentation. From their experiences conducting scientific experiments, students aquire information firsthand and develop problem-solving skills. This allows them to experience science for themselves in hands-on investigations.
Includes 6 developed skills:
1. Observing: using senses to get info.
2. Communicating: talking and acting.
3. Comparing: pairing and one-to-one correspondence.
4. Relating: cause/effect and classification.
5. Inferring: super-ordinate/subordinate classification, if/then reasoning, and developing scientific laws.
6. Applying: developing strategic plans and inventing.
Model of inquiry that best supports science learning.
It consists of 3 phases:
2. Concept invention
these 3 phases were based upon a theoretical foundation stating:
1. Science must be taight in a way that is consistent with the nature of science. Science is an active process/should be hands-on.
2. Science teaching must be focused on promoting the main purpose of education, namely, to promote the development in our students the ability to think-to be critical and independent thinkers.
3. Science must be taught in a way that matches how students learn.
piaget's model of mental functioning: how individuals learn
Involves 3 phases of mental processes.
1. Assimilation: we take in information from what we experience in our environment. In this phase, we may experience "disequilibrium" which is confusion or "cognitive conflict" as we try to make sense of our experiences. During disequilibrium, we need to go back and "assimilate" more information by making additional observations and gathering more data. When we have assimilated enough info and made sense of the info we gathered, our minds experience accomodation.
2. Accomodation- the point where we figure out what we have observed/experienced and it makes sense. The "aha" moment where we experience cognitive relief. Our minds take that newly accomodated info and we organize it into our mental structures.
3. Organization- when our minds take newly accomodated info and organize it in our minds. We connect the new idea or what we have figured out/made sense of to what we already know, what we experience in everyday life, and/or to new, related concepts.
way of knowing a process- it is a systematic way of looking at the world and how it works.
It is also a way of organizing observations and then seeking patterns and regularity in order to make sense of the world.
3 types of models
1. Physical-ex: physical model of a cell
2. Conceptual-ex: concept map or analogy
3. Mathematical-ex: formula showing relationships
a measure of the certain amount of matter (mass) that is packed into a given amount of space (volume).
The "heavyness" to an object.
is the force attraction or repulsion between objects that results from the positive and negative ionic charges of the objects.
Usually the objects are metal, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt.
The charged area around the magnet is called the "magnetic field".
the action of moving an object by pulling or pushing it.
Can cause an object to move at a constant speed or to accelerate.
When it is applied over a distance, "work" is done.
newton's laws of motion
includes 3 laws.
1. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an (unbalanced) force, and an object in motion will continue to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an (unbalanced) outside force. (this law is also called "inertia")
2. Acceleration is produced when a force acts on mass and the greater the mass of the object being accelerated, the greater the amount of force needed to accelerate that object.
3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
something that makes work easier.
Can be as simple as a wedge or screw or as sophisticated as a computer or gas engine.
machine having few or no moving parts and can change the size and direction of the force.
Examples: screw, hammer, wedge, and incline plane.
two or more simple machinesworking together to facilitate work.
Examples: wheelbarrow, can opener, and bicycle.
what keeps the sun, earth, moon, and planets in their orbits and explains the structure and change of the universe?
force and motion
amount of matter in an object or thing.
Also the property of a body that causes it to have weight.
112 kinds of matter, which are organized into the periodic table.
It is composed of microscopic components called atoms.
location of most of the atom's mass.
Made up of protons and neutrons.
Electrons contain a little bit of mass and follow an orbit around this area.
when you have two or more different kinds of atoms in the molecule and you have a given amount of that substance.
These consist of matter composed of atoms that are chemically combined with one another in molecules in definite weight proportions.
Water (h20) is an example of this.
properties of matter
Has 4 different types of matter.
1. Physical- the way matter looks and feels, including color (how matter is reflected or perceived by human eye), density (mass that is contained in a unit of volume of a given substance), hardness (the resistance to penetration offered by a given substance) , and conductivity( ability of substances to transmit thermal or electric current).
2. Thermal- heat and cold produce changes in the physical properties of matter, however, the chemical properties remain unchanged.
Ex: when water is exposed to cold temp, it changes from a liquid to a solid with heat added it changes back to a liquid from a solid. Continued heat changes water from liquid to gas.
3. Electrical- matter can be classified as a conductor or nonconductor. Conductive matter: allows the transfer of electric current or heat from one point to another. Metals are good conductors, while wood and rocks are example of nonconductive matter.
4. Chemical- chemical properties of one types of matter can react with the chemical properties of other types of matter. In general, electrons from the same group will not react with each other, while elements from different groups may.
states of matter
Can exist in 4 distinct states.
1. Solid: have mass, occupy a define amount of space or volume or have definite shape, and are more dense than liquids.
2. Liquid: have mass, occupy a definite volume, so not have a definite shape, but instead take the shape of their container.
3. Gas: have mass, do not have definite volume, have nodefinite shape but take the shape of their container, and are the least dense.
4. Plasma- has no definite shape or volume, and is a substnce that cannot be classified as a soliid, liquid, or gas. They are formed at extremely high temperatures when electrons are stripped from neutral atoms. Stars are predominantly composed of plasmas.
combinations of two or more substances, where each substance is distinct from the other, that is, made up of two or more types of molecules and not chemically combined. May be heterogeneous (uneven distribution of the substances in the miture throughout), or homogeneous (components are evenly distibuted throughout).
mixtures that are homogeneous, which means that the components are distributed evenly and there is an even concentration throughout.
Ex: seawater and ammonia.
substance in the smaller amount that dissolves and that you add into the substance that is in the larger amount, the "solvent".
Can be solids, liquids and gases.
the part of a solution that is present in the largest amount and dissolves a solute. Water is an example of this.
physical change in matter
a change in a substance that does not change what that substance is made of.
Ex: melting ice, tearing paper, chopping wood.
These can be reversed.
chemical change in matter
when the substances that were combined are no longer the same molecules-they have changed to new substances.
Ex: burning wood, a rusting nail.
Typically can't be reversed.
Evidence of this change that the combination of substances gives off a gas, it changes color, gives off heat and becomes warmer, absorbs heat and becomes colder, and forms a precipitate (a solid substance).
when heat is absorbed in a chemical change.
Ex: cold pack used in sports injury.
forms of energy
has 8 forms:
3. Solar radiation
states of energy
Has 3 states:
1. Kinetic- an object possessing energy because of its ability to move.
2. Potential- energy an object has as the result of its position or condition.
3. Activation- energy neccessary to transfer or convert potential energy into kinetic energy.
Ex: car parked ina garage has potential energy. When driver starts engine using the chemical energy stored in the battery and the fuel, potential energy becomes activation energy. Once the vehicle is moving, the energy changes to kinetic energy.
most common form of energy comes from this?
the sun. Solar energy provides heat and light for animals and plants.
plants capture radiant energy from the sun and transform it in to chemical energy in the form of glucose. This chemical energy is stored in the leaves, stems, and fruits of plants.
3 ways heat is transfered
Transfer happens in 3 ways:
1. Conduction- process of transferring heat or electricity through a substance. It occurs when 2 objects of differing temperatures are placed in contact with each other,heat flows from teh hotter object to the cooler one.
2. Radiation- describes the energy that travels at high speed in space in the form of light or through the decay of radioactive elements.
3. Convection- describes the flow of heat through the movement of matter from a hot region to a cool region. In its most basic form, the concept of this transfer is that warmer air rises and colder air sinks.this transfer occurs when the heating and circulation of a substance changes the density of the substance.
when all metal parts are touching and the electrical charge is able to continue to be transfered through the circuit.
Ex: "light turned on". Light switch or on button closes the circuit and allows the electricity to flow.
when there is a break someplace in the flow of electricity through the circuit.
Ex: "light turned off". Light switch or off button opens the circuit and stops the electricity flow.
electricity where it is not flowing or being transferred in the way it is through a metal wire, but is caused by friction, same as walking across a carpet in socks and then you get shocked when touching a metal doorknob. Lightning is a form of this electricity.
shows the different wavelengths and frequencies of energy, including small portion that is visible light.
3. Radio waves
4. Infared radiation
5. Visible light waves
6. Ultraviolet waves
the wavelength of light we can see, which our eyes see as white light. The colors of white light include red, orange, yellow, greem, blue, indigo and violet. (roygbiv)
concave or convex lenses
work such that when light passes through them it changes the focal point.
Used in eyeglasses to adjust and correct focal point.
Also used in microscopes and telescopes.
this travels in waves and are caused by vibrations, such as guitar strings, or banging on a drum.
It has a certain wavelength, frequency, pitch and amplitude (loudness).
These waves must travel through a medium, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, but it travels best through solids.
Has 2 types of waves:
1. Longitudal waves- move parallel to the direction the wave moves.
2. Transverse waves- move perpindicular to the direction of the wave.
conservation of energy
1. Main principle of this states that energy can change form but cannot totally disappear.
2. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed in form. Same with matter.
changing energy and matter
these two things can be changed from one form to another, but are not lost.
traveling of this happens in waves and in a straight line.
It may be refracted or bent, and.or reflected.
all things that carry on life functions, such as respiration, nutrition, response, circulation, growth, excretion, regulation, and reproduction.
These are all composed of the basic unit of life known as cells.
cells that contain mitochondria,small round or rod-shaped bodies found in the cytoplasm of most cells.
The main function of mitochondria is produce the enzymes for the metabolic conversion of food to energy.
This process consumes oxygen and is termed aerobic respiration.
small round or rod-shaped bodies found in the cytoplasm of most cells.
Their main function is to produce enzymes for the metabolic conversion of food to energy.
the process of the metabolic conversion of food to energy, then consuming oxygen.
Cells that also contain mitochondria, which allow plants to carry on respiration where they use oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide and water just like animals.
These cells also have specialized organelles called "chloroplasts" that are used for taking in sunlight and using energy to convert another gas, carbon dioide, and water taken in from the roots to make glucose-a simple sugar that is the food for the plant.
Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, which is used in this process of converting light into chemical energy, which is called photosynthesis.
process by which chlorophyll-containing organisms convert light energy to chemical energy.
Basic unit of living organisms and the simplest living unit of life.
There are 2 kinds:
1. Prokaryotic- simplest and most primitive type. Do not contain the structures typical of eularyotic ones. They lack a nucleus and instead have one strand of dna. Some have external whip like flagella for locomotion or a hairlike system for adhesion.they come in 3 shapes: 1. Cocci (round) 2. Bacilli (rods)
3. Spirilla or spirochetes (helical cells).
Ex: bacteria, aka monera.
2. Eukaryotic- evolved from prokaryotic and contain many structures, or organelles. These organelles are the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and golgi apparatus. The nucleus contains the dna information. The mitochondria have their own membrane and contain some dna info and proteins. They generate the energy for the cell. The chloroplast is a component that exists in plants only, allowing them to trap sunlight as energy for the process of photosynthesis. The golgi apparatus secretes substances needed for the cell's survival.
classifications of living things
divided into 5 groups or kingdoms:
1. Monera-(bacteria, algae & spirochetes)unicellular-only kingdom with prokaryotic cells.
2. Protista- protozoans- unicellular. (amoeba).
3. Fungi- multicellular. (mushrooms, mold, mildews & yeast).
4. Plantae-(plants), multicellular.
5. Animalia- (animals), multicellular, most sophisticated type of living organisms and represent the highest levels of evolution.
life cycle of plants
this life cycle begins with seeds.
Mature plants produce seeds which are transported. For seeds to germinate (initially sprout), they need air, the right amount of heat or proper temperature specific for that seed, and water. They do not need light to germinate, but do need light to grow since they need to carry on photosynthesis for their source of food, and to mature into an adult plant that can reproduce new seeds. The plant makes food through the process of photsynthesis.
life cycle of animals
this life cycles starts as an egg. Sometimes the egg grows inside the female and is fertilized by the male. For others the eggs are fertilized by the male after they have been expelled from the females body. The egg will either be released during birth, or eventually hatch. Animals can produce multiple times.
groups of cells with similar functions organized together to perform a specific life function.
group of different organs working together to support and carry out a life function and keep the organism alive.
Ex: digestive system, respiratory system, muscular system, cardiovascular system.
connective tissues that hold together more than 200 bones in the human skeleton.
It is specialized tissue that attaches bone to other bones.
contractions of these muscles are effected by movements.
These muscles are arranged in pairs, such as the biceps and triceps of the upper arm.
types of nonskeletal muscles
2 types of muscles not attached to bones and not part of skeletal system:
1. Smooth- these muscles form the inner linings of our digestive systems and is controlled involuntarily by our autonomic (automatic) nervous system.
2. Cardiac- these muscles are muscles of the heart, and also controlled by our autonomic nervous system.
divisions of nervous system
1. Somatic-allows the voluntary control of skeletal muscles.
2. Automatic-involuntary, controls cardiac and glandular functions.
caused by nerve impulses sent from the brain through the spinal cord to nerves to connecting skeletal muscles.
occurs in direct response to outside stimulus.
These involuntary responses are reflexes.
System that follows a cylindrical process in which the heart pumps blood through th right chambers of the heart and through the lungs, where it aquires oygen.
From there it is pumped back into the left chambers of the heart, where it is pumped into the main artery (aorta), which then sends the oxygenated blood to the rest of the body using a system of veins and capillaries, the blood distributes the oxygen and nutrientss to tissues, absorbing from them carbon dioide, a metabolic waste product.
Finally, the blood completes the circuit by passing through small veins, which joint o form increasingly larger vessels.
Eventually, the blood reaches the largest veins, which return it to the right side of the heart to complete and restart the process.
a clear gelatinous fluid-enclosed within a membrane.
All cells have this internal substance.
Growth in most in organisms is caused by nuclear cell division.
The chromosomes containing dna first replicate-in humans, the 46 chromosomes in cell double.
The cell then divides in a series of steps resulting in 2 new cells that each have the original chromosomes, or the exact copy of the original.
Through this process, new cells are made, for example, to form a scar after an injury, new bone cells, muscles cells, blood cells, and any cell that is needed in the body throughout life and growth.
In single-celled organisms, this process is the cell's form of reproduction-making exact copies of the dna in each of the 2 daughter cells, and is ofter called binary fission.this type of reproduction is also called a sexual reproduction because only one organism(the single cell) is involved and there is no exchange of genetic material or dna. Thus, the 2 offspring cells, or daughter cells, are identical to the original or parent cell.
Type of reproduction dealing with how sperm and eggs cells are formed throught a series of steps.
The original cell in the female ovary, or the male testical first duplicates(replicates) its 46 chromosomes(containing the genetic blueprint material,dna) and the divides twice, the result is 4 cells with half the number of chromosomes, or 23 chromosomes each.
Informing the egg cell, only 1 is the viable egg that can be fertilized, and the remaining 3 are polar bodies that eventually dissolve.
In the male, all 4 sperm cells that were formed by reproduction of the original cell are viable and capable of fertilizing the egg.
This form of reproduction is known as sexual reproduction, because it requires the combination of dna between 2 organisms of the same species(male, female).
The fertilization of the egg by sperm cells occurs through copulation in vertebrates, and for fish and some amphibians, it occurs through cross-fertilization. Cross-fertilization occurs outside the body the female lays the eggs(ovum), and the males spray them with sperm to fertilize them.
asexual plant reproduction
type of plant reproduction that takes place by cutting portions of the plant and replanting them.
sexual plant reproduction
type of plant reproduction that invovles seeds produced by female and male plants, which are then crossed-pollinated with help from insects or other animals.
stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.
It is the hereditary material living organisms. And is arranged in chromosomes that are located in the nucleus.
are hereditary trates.
Certain ones give the cell directions, in the developing embryo for example, for the expression of traits such as eye color, hair color, and leg shape and size.
trait that is masked by the dominant trait. Only apparent when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited.
study of the relationship of organisms with their physical environment.
The physical environment includes light, heat, solar radiation, moisture, wind, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, water and the atmosphere.
The biological environment describes living and nonliving organisms in the ecosystem.
3 main components of ecosystem
1. Producers- green plants that produce oxygen and store chemical energy from consumers.
2. Consumers- animals, both herbivores and carnivores. Herbivores take the chemical energy from plants, and carnivores take the energy from other animals or directly from plants.
3. Decomposers- are in charge of cleaning up the environment by decomposing and freeing dead matter for recycling back into the ecosystem.
3 layers of the earth
1. Crust- outer portion of the earth where we live. Thickness of crust varied from about 3 miles to 40 miles, depending on the location. It contains various types of soil, metals and rocks.
2. Mantle- thickest layer of the earth located right below the crust. Composed of mostly rocks and metals. The heat in this layer is so intense that rocks and metals melt, creating magma and resulting lava that reaches the surface.
3. Core- the inner part of the earth. Composed of a solid inner core and a mostly liquid outer core. The inner core is made of solid iron and nickel. Temperatures in the inner core resemble the heat on the surface of the sun.
theory created in 1915 by german scientist alfred weneger, who proposedthat all the continents were previously one large continent but then brokek apart and drifted through the ocean floor to their present locations.
the surface of the earth is fragmented into large plates.
These plates are in continuous motion, floating on the liquid mantel and always changing in size and position.
The edges of these plates, where they move against each other, are sited of intense geologic activity, which results in earthquakes, volcanoes, and the creation of mountains.
3 main forces and processes that change the earth's surface
2. Geological movements
3. Creation of glaciers
2 examples of physical weathering
1. Exfoliation-occurs in places like the desert when the soil is exposed first to high temps, which cause it to expand, and then to cold temps, which make the soil contract. These changes cause the outer layers of rock to peel off.
2. Freeze-thaw- breaks down rock when water gets into rock joints or cracks and then freezes and expands, breaking the rock.
2 types of chemical weathering
1. Acid formation-formed under various conditions, like acid rain.
2. Hydration-occurs when the minerals in rock absorb water and expand sometimes changing the chemical composition of the rock.
can take place after weathering occurs.
It is the movement of sediment from one location to another through the use of water, wind, or gravity.
occur when forces within the earth cause rocks to break and move arounf geologic faults.
used to measure the amount of energy released by an earthquake.
The severity of an earthquake runs from 0-9 on this scale.
formed by the constant motion of tectonic plates.
This movement creates pressure that forces magma from the mantel to escape to the surface, creating an explosion of lava, fire, and ash.
the force of attraction that exists between objects.
It keeps the earth in its orbit by establishing a balance between the attraction of the sun and the speed at which the earth travels around it.
water that seeps beneath the surface of the land and forms an undergrounnd river of water.
a large mass of gas that the earth is surrounded by.
It is roughly 348 miles thick and this gas mass supports life on earth and separates it from space.
It is composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% argon.
It contains water, greenhouse gases like ozone, and carbon dioxide.
It has 5 layers. The layer closest to the earth is called the "troposphere", and the weather we experience occurs in that layer.
produced by increasing of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane & ozone) in the atmosphere.
3 types of rocks
1. Igneous rocks- crystalline solids that form directly from the cooling of magma or lava. Granite is one of the most common types of igneous rocks and is created from magma.
2. Sedimentary rocks- called secondary rocks because they are often the result of teh accumulation of small pieces broken off from preeisting rocks and then pressed into a new form.
There are 2 types of sedimentary rocks:
1. Clastic 2. Chemical 3. Organic
3. Metamorphic rocks- also secondary rocks formed from igneous, sedimentary, or other types pf metamorphic rock. When hot magma or lava comes in contact with rocks or when buried rocks are eposed to pressure and high temps, the result is metamorphic rocks.
the formation of rocks that follows a cylindrical process.
Rocks can be formed when magma or lava cools down, creating igneous rocks. Igneous rocks exposed to weathering can break into sediment, which can be compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are exposed to heat and pressure to create metamorphic rocks. Finally, metamorphic rocks can melt and become magma and lava again.
the most common form of solid material found in the earth's crust.
It is a substance that must be found in nature and must never have been a part of any living organism.
They can be soft as talc or as hard as minerals and diamonds.
The hydrologic describes a series of movements of water above, on, and below the surface of the earth.
This cycle consists of 4 distinct stages: storage, evaporation, precipitation, and runoff.
It is the means by which the sun's energy is used to transport through the atmosphere, stored water from the rivers and oceans to land masses. The heat of the sun evaporates the water and takes it to the atmosphere from which, through condensation, it falls as precipitation. Asprecipitation falls, water is filtrated back to underground water deposits called aquifers, or it runs off into storage in lakes, ponds, and oceans.
Include the carbon and nitrogen cycle.
The carbon cycle- is the capture of carbon from carbin dioide in the atmosphere by plants to make glucose. When this glucose is used as food for the plant or other organisms, it is digested, then by repiration, broken apart again into carbon dioxide and returned back to the atmosphere.
The nitrogen cycle- lightning causes nitrogen in the air to combine with oxygen. Certain bacteria that live on the roots of certain plants, called nitrogen-fixing bacteria, are able to make nitrogen in this combined form with oxygen and make it available for plant use.
caused by air masses that have different amounts of heat (temperatures), where there may be a warm air mass that is moving toward a cold air mass for example.
related to both the amount of water in the air mass and its temperature (heat content), in that warm air has higher pressure than cold air-warm, high pressure air masses move toward cold, low pressure air masses.
Energy always moves from warmer to colder.
the weather conditions in an areas on a contunuous, seasonal basis.
Can be measured by the average variety of weather conditions, sucha s temperature and precipitation that occur seasonally in that geographic region of the worls over a long period of time.
large collections of stars, hydrogen, dust particles, and other gases.
There are countless in the universe.
The solar system that includes earth is part of one called the milky way.
2 movements of planets
1. Rotation- describes the spinning of earth on its ais. Earth takes approx. 24 hours to make a complete 360 degree rotation, which creates day and night.
2. Revolution- while the earth is rotating on its axis, it is also following an orbit around the sun. It takes a year, 365 days, for earth to complete one of revolution.
created by the tilt of earth as it moves around the sun and its curvature.
The zones immediately north and south of the equator are called the tropics-cancer (north) and Capricorn (south). The arctic circle (north pole) and Antarctic circle (south pole) are the area surrounding earth's axis points.
phases of the moon
About 28 days in length, the moon appears to go through several stages based on the portion of the moon visible from earth. The moon reflects light from the sun. The shape varies from a full moon, when earth is between the sun and the moon, to a new moon, when the moon is located between the sun and earth.
1. New moon- the moon is not visible to earth because the side of the moon facing earth is not being lit by the sun.
2. Crescent moon- between the half moon and the new moon, the shape of the moon is compared to a banana.
3. Half moon, or first quarter- half of the moon is visible.
4. Gibbous moon- about 3/4 of moon is visible.
5. Full moon- the whole moon is visible from earth.
composed of nine planets, many satellites that orbit the planets, and a large number of smaller bodies like comets and asteroids.
The sun is the center.
fragments of rock in space, most originating from the debris left behind by comets that burn up/vaporize upon entering earth's atmosphere due to friction from the air molecules.
outer solar system
contains the planets jupiter, saturn, uranus, and neptune, and dwarf planets including pluto.