BIO 215 Test 2 Part 1

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Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum Bacteriopyta - Class Prochlorobacteriae - Marguli's Endosymbiont Theory - Alternation of Generations Kingdom Protista - Phylum Chlorophyta - Phylum Chromophyta - class Bacillariophyceae - class Phaeophyceae

Phylum Bacteriopyta belongs to which kingdom?

Bacteria

class Prochlorobacteriae belongs to which phylum?

Bacteriopyta

What is the common name for the members of class prochlorobacteriae?

prochlorophytes (chloroxybacteria)

Members of class Prochlorobacteriae contain which pigments?

chlorophyll a/b, carotenoids (accessory)

Members of which class are commonly found in sea squirts (tunicates) and water depths up to 100m

Prochlorobacteriae

Who proposed the theory that chloroplasts may have arisen from symbiotic prokaryotes?

Marguli

What type of bacteria may support the idea that chloroplasts may have arisen from symbiotic prokaryotes?

Chloroxybacteria (prochlorophytes)

Describe the Endosymbiotic Theory

A primitive eukaryotic cell, called a proto-eukaryote, lived in close association with a prokaryote. Eventually, the two cells became so dependent on each other that they could not live apart and the modern eukaryote cell came into being. The prokaryotic cells became mitochondria and chloroplasts in the new eukaryotic cell.

What is a weakness of the Endosymbiotic Theory?

It cannot explain the origin of flagella by this same mechanism. The flagella of eukaryotes move back and forth while the flagella of prokayotes spin like a propeller. The flagella operate by two completely different mechanisms.

Describe the six pieces of evidence that support the Endosymbiotic theory.

1. M and C physically resemble prokaryotes (size, membrane structure)
2. double membrane in M and C
3. different lipid composition in outer & inner membrane. (outer - proto-eukaryote, inner - prokaryotic)
4. M and C have their own DNA (slightly different, replicate independently of nucleus)
5. C contain the same pigments as Prochloron
6. Symbiotic relationships between prokaryotic cells and other cell types are possible

What are two examples of symbiotic relationships between a prokaryotic cell and a different cell type?

prochloron lives inside tunicate, cyanobacterium lives inside a diatom

"Alteration of Generations" occurs in which type of reproduction?

sexual

Define "alteration of generations"

During the life cycle, there is an alternation between a diploid sporophyte phase and a haploid gametophyte phase

Which generation / phase is the dominant, visible part of the life cycle of many "primitive" forms?

gametophyte

Which generation / phase is the dominant, visible part of the life cycle of many "complex" forms? The other is greatly reduced / microscopic

sporophyte

What are the five phyla we studied in kingdom Protista?

Chlorophyta, Chromophyta, Rhodophyta, Euglenophyta, Dinophyta

Describe the general morphology of kingdom Protista

Eukaryotic, do not have complex tissues, very diverse and heterogenous group

Describe the general nutrition of kingdom Protista

heterotrophic and photosynthetic

Describe the general reproduction of kingdom Protista

asexual and sexual, many exhibit alternation of generations

What is the common name for members of phylum Chlorophyta?

Green algae

What is the diversity of the members of phylum Chlorophyta?

7500

Members of which phylum are commonly found in freshwater (majority), salt water, terrestrial, fur of animals (sloths, polar bears), in flatworms, and in association with lichens?

Chlorophyta

g. Chlamydomonas and Desmids are members of p. Chlorophyta that have a ________ morphology

microscopic, unicellular

g. Ulothrix and g. Spirogyra are members of p. Chlorophyta that have a ________ morphology

filamentous

g. Pediastrum is a member of p. Chlorophyta that has a ________ morphology

plate-like

g. Hydrodictyon is a member of p. Chlorophyta that has a ________ morphology

net-like tubes

g. Volvox is a member of p. Chlorophyta that has a ________ morphology

hollow balls

Sea lettuce and g. Ulva are members of p. Chlorophyta that have a ________ morphology

seaweed

Members of p. Chlorophyta contain which pigments?

chlorophylls a/b, carotenoids

What is the form of metabolism for p. Chlorophyta?

photosynthetic

How do members of p. Chlorophyta store food?

starch

Describe the motility of the members of p. Chlorophyta

some unicellular forms use flagella, multicellular forms often have flagellated gametes

How do members of p. Chlorophyta reproduce?

asexual and sexual

Describe the Ecological and Economic Significance of p. Chlorophyta

Important primary producers, Chlorella is being tested as a recycling organism, sold in health food stores

What three two belong to p. Chromophyta?

Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae

What are the common names for members of p. Chromophyta?

yellow green, golden brown, brown algae

What is the diversity of p. Chromophyta?

7,500 - 8,000

How do members of p. Chromophyta store food?

oils, fats, laminarin, mannitol

Members of p. Chromophyta contain which pigments?

chlorophyll a/c1/c2 and fucoxanthin (brown)

In p. chromophyta, what is the proper name for the resting cell

statospore

Describe the structure and function of the statospore

The statospore has a silicified wall and a plug that form a protective shell around the zoospore. It is formed when conditions are unfavorable, It is a resistant resting stage

What is the common name of the members of class Bacillariophyceae?

Diatoms

What is the diversity of class Bacillariophyceae?

5,600

What is the best known and commercially important group in phylum Chromophyta?

class Bacillariophyceae

Members of which class are commonly found in fresh and saltwater?

Bacillariophyceae

Describe the morphology of the members of class Bacillariophyceae

clear shell has two halves (valves) and is composed of pectin (organic) and aluminum silicate (glass). The shells have fine grooves and pores which connect the protoplasm to the outside of the shell. They contain one to many chloroplasts.

Describe the motility of the members of class Bacillariophyceae.

The diatoms "crawl" on the substrate by attaching tiny fibrils to a surface and contracting them

Describe the economic significance of class Bacillariophyceae

Diatomaceous earth consists of diatom shells and is used for high melting point materials, filtration, mild abrasives (metal polishes, toothpaste), and light reflecting paint (license plates, highway markers)

What is the common name of the members of class Phaeophyceae?

Brown algae

What is the diversity of class Phaeophyceae?

1,500 - 2,500

Members of which class are commonly found in cold ocean waters (very few occur in freshwater) up to 30m / 100ft deep

Phaeophyceae

Define "compensation point"

the depth in the water column at which a photosynthetic organism can receive just enough light to maintain itself. There is no growth or reproduction.

What is an example of a brown algae member of class Phaeophyceae?

Sargassum (Sargasso Sea, just off the east coast)

Describe the morphology of c. Phaeophyceae

multicellular, relatively large. Many have a body differentiated into holdfast (roots), stipe (stalk), blades, bladders (10% CO filled float)

What is the form of metabolism for c. Phaeophyceae?

photosynthesis

Describe the motility of c. Phaeophyceae

nonmotile adult forms; reproductive cells have two lateral flagella

How do members of c. Phaeophyceae reproduce?

sexual (alternation of generations)

Describe the ecological and economic significance of c. Phaeophyceae

Produce algin (gelatinous) which is used in foods (thickener), pharmaceutical products (creamy), commercial products (paint), and research (binder)

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