A system of governance in which a single ruler treats the state as personal property. (Before 1917, Russia was a patrimonial state)
Russia fought France, England, Turkey, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The Russians lost, and this war was one of the many events that made the Russian public believe that major reform of the government was necessary for economic growth.
Emancipated the slaves/serfs in 1861 in order to modernize Russia, but this weakened the power and influence of the boyars. The conservatives, who did not want change, assassinated Alexander II in 1881. After his death, his son, Alexander III undid the all the reforms of his father.
Peter the Great and Catherine the Great
Tsarist rulers who started the westernization process of Russia. Peter the Great forged allies with many countries in Europe, built a stronger army, navy, roads and communication, reorganized the bureaucracy, and created St. Petersburg to provide Russia with a western capital.
The very last tsar and the son of Alexander III. Not a very strong leader. He created the October Manifesto, which created a national Duma (legislature) that had to approve every law and allowed more rights to vote. In February 1917, when Russia entered WWI (due to contract with Bulgaria); Russia was devastated with famine and death. The workers and peasants had enough and overthrew the tsars and set up a provisional government
On January 22, 1905, a massacre of demonstrators in St. Petersburg by the National Guard and greatly weakened support of the tsarist state.
Out of the three opposition parties against Nicholas II, the Russian Social Labor Party was the most popular and radical, which sought to represent the working class and support equality. In 1903, the party split into the Bolsheviks (majority), led by Vladimir Lenin, and the Mensheviks (the minority), the former more radical in comparison. In October, the Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing this government, and renamed Russia into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the USSR. Lenin signed Brest-Litovsk Treaty with Germany, which gave Germany a third of its land so Russia could evacuate the war. Although popular in Moscow, the entire country was not supportive of Bolshevik control and shortly after their gain of power, civil war ensued.
They were the Red Army.
A form of democracy in which the interests of the masses were discovered through discussion within the Communist party, and then decisions were made under central leadership to serve those interests.
Established by Lenin.
A political party that claims to operate in the 'true' interests of the group or class it purports to represent, even if this understanding doesn't correspond to the expressed interests of the group itself. Established by Lenin.
A process undertaken by the USSR during the reign of Stalin. This process took the agricultural lands from the peasants( the Kulaks) and was organized into large state and collective farms. Peasants who resisted to give up their land was either forced out or killed.
Stalin's Five Year Plan
Focused on industrialization and even neglected other sectors, such as agriculture, which caused wide-spread famine and death. This industrialization also caused great ecological pollution. Terror was used as a source of power and control over the USSR citizens and the Communist Party became subject to Stalin's control, and he would kill anyone under suspicion.
An expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx(Equality over freedom) ; Lenin emphasizes the strategy and organization to be used by the communist party to overthrow capitalism and seize power as a first step on the road to communism.
Policies and methods associated with the rule of Josef Stalin, often involving terrorism and repression. This changed the regime in Russia to totalitarianism.
A political system in which the state has total control over all aspects of public and private life.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Tacit Social Contract
Political support in exchange for job security, a lax work environment and low prices for basic goods, housing, transport, free social services and minimal interference in personal life.
A process of party members selecting promising recruits from the lower levels.
The chief executive and political committee of the Communist Party; The heart and soul of the Communist party.
Social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies. Established by Khrushchev. (In his "Secret Speech", he reveals a letter from Lenin where he is criticizing Stalin.)
The 1st president of the Russian Federation. Was under the influence of alcohol and so the oligarchs took control of the government.
Allowed the emergence of public interest groups and competitive elections.
A foreign policy which integrated Russia into the global economy.
A policy that rapidly changed Russia from a history of strong autocratic rule and a state-relied economy to a market economic democracy.
A small group of powerful and wealthy individuals of Russia's economy in the context of the privatization of state assets in the 1990s.
A strategy of economic transformation that involves reducing the role of the state in managing the economy and increasing the role of market forces.
A business firm whose capital is divided into shares that can be held by individuals, or governmental units.
A certificate worth 10,000 rubles issued by the government to each Russian citizen in 1992 to be used to purchase shares in state enterprises undergoing the process of privatization.
A term used in relation to Russia to refer to the transformation of formerly state-owned enterprises into joint-stock companies or private enterprises in which majority control of the enterprise is in the hands of employees and/or managers of that enterprise.
A term used to describe networks of organized criminal activity that pervade both economic and governmental securities in that country as well as activities such as the demanding of protection of money, bribe-taking by government officials, contrast killing, and extortion.
The ability of firms to systematically turn the state regulations to their advantage through payoffs to officials.
a concept used to analyze the manner in which previous institutional structures and conditions constrain and influence opportunities for change.
Past experiences shapes choices and options.
An informal aspect of policy making in which a powerful patron offers resources such as land, contracts, protection, or jobs in return for support and services; relationship between powerful people seeking support and less powerful people seeking benefits.
Derived from the Russian word sil, meaning force. Russian politicians and government officials drawn from security and intelligence agencies (eg KGB or FSB), special forces, or the military, many of whom were recruited to important political posts under Vladimir Putin.
A system of governance in which political authority is shared between a central government and regional or state governments, but where some sub-national units in the federal system have greater or lesser powers than others. UNBALANCED.
A term used by Vladmir Putin to describe a unified and hierarchical structure of power ranging from the executive power ranging from the federal level to the local level, which can be reinforced by various mechanisms such as appointment of lower officials by higher level officials and oversight of activities of lower organs by higher ones.
-Creation of super districts
-removal of governors
-changes the Federation Council
-Elimination of the single-member-district seats (plurality) in the Duma.
A complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organizations, and many other kinds of groups that exist independently from the government.
Undeveloped in Russia, but is growing.
The Central State Planning Commission which oversaw Stalin's series of five year plans.
Supposedly the most important body in a communist party; its influence declined as it grew in size and the party needed daily leadership.
Constitution of 1993
Formed by a referendum and held in check by the Duma. It created a three-branch government. It is a semi-presidential (President and Prime Minister) system and has a Constitutional Court.
Cleavages in Russia
1. Nationality- 80% of the population are Russian
2. Religion-Most are Russian Orthodox, but largely nonreligious. Has many Muslims. (Moscow, Caucasus)
3. Social Class- class differences were partially eliminated, but only replaced by Communist members through nomenklatura.
4. Rural vs Urban- 73% of Russians live in urban areas.
A republic of Russia that declared its independence in September 1991, against which Yeltsin launched a disastrous full-scale military attack in 1994, which led to the death of thousands of civilians. This is primarily a Muslim region. Friction with Russia. In 2004, they attacked and seized a school in Russia which resulted in the death of 350 people.
The state is in power of the people.
Caesars and heads of the Russian Orthodox Church. They are both political and religious leaders.
Russian intellectuals in the early nineteenth century who favored resisting western European influences and taking pride in the traditional peasant values and institutions of the Slavic People.
The lower house in the legislature with 450 deputies.
A diverse population
The upper house in the legislature. Can delay legislation. The Duma can override the Federation Council with 2/3 vote.
Meaning 'ours' in Russian.
A youth movement that supports Putin and the supporters receive grants from the government and large state-run businesses.
The dominant political party of Russia. Medvedev's party, but is pro-Putin.
Communist Party of the Russian Federation
The second largest party in the Duma. The leader is Gennady Zyuganov. Centralized planning and nationalism.
The most controversial party. They are anti-semetic, sexist and pro-nuclear attacks. The leader is Vladimir Zhirinovsky.
Fair Russia/A Just Russia
The Yabloko and Union of Right Forces
Lost all the seats in the Duma b/c of new rules. They are pro-democracy and wants the development of a free market.
Elections in Russia
3 types of votes
1. Referendum- Government asks the people to vote
2. Duma Elections- Since 2007, there has been proportional representation.
3. Presidential Elections
State Corporatism in Russia
Ruled by the government.
Has become well established under Putin.
Insider Privatization has increased. Companies that are loyal to Putin benefits.
Ex. Gazprom (Natural gas), United Aircraft Corporation
Head of State- President
The president appoints the prime minister and cabinet. The Duma can reject the president up to 3 times, but after that, they(Duma) can be dissolved.
They issue decrees that have force of law.
Succession- The prime minister is the successor of the president. There is no vice president.
Judiciary in Russia
Constitutional Court created in 1993
Also created Supreme Court for criminal and civil cases
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924) Died in 1914
Dictator of the Soviet Union, turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. Died in 1953
Ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
Basically undid all of Khrushchev's reforms. He used terror as a political device to some extent, but unlike under Stalin's rule, citizens knew when they were violating the limits of their criticism. His rule, although centralized, established an agreement with the Russian citizens. ->Tacit Social Contract
Died in 1982
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. Supported Glasnost Democratization, New Thinking and urged perestroika; but all this failed.
Birthmark on head.
Second president of the Russian Federation.
Yeltsin's successor. Retreats from democratic system and focuses on centralization of power. Current prime minister. Elected in 2000 and 2004
Putin's successor and third president of the Russian Federation. Elected in 2008
The Pravda was the official newspaper of the USSR and after 1991, it has transformed to report as a tabloid. (Putin does not like the Pravda)