APUSH Terms Chapter 9

31 terms by ket0308 

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Adams-Onis Treaty

Provided for the United States purchase of Florida from Spain in 1819; also gained Spanish assurances to abandon its claims in the Oregon Territory.

American System

A high protective tariff to stimulate industrial growth and provide a "home market" for the farmers of the West, making the nation economically self-sufficient.

Chief Black Hawk

Led the Sac and Fox Indians to refuse to leave Mississippi when the Americans tried to force them out.

Clermont

Steamboat that successfully propelled 150 miles up the Hudson River. Demonstrated by Robert Fulton and Robert R. Livingston.

Cotton gin

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. A type of strainer that removed the seeds from cotton, making production rates increase. Made the South a cotton empire that was the envy of the world.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

This Supreme Court case targeted the issue of whether the legislature of New Hampshire had the right to convert Dartmouth from a private university to a state college. The Court ruled that the initial charter/contract for the university was unbreakable.

Eli Whitney

Inventor of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the process of removing the seed from raw cotton much easier and faster, making cotton the number one cash crop of the South.

Era of Good Feelings

Time period named by a U.S. newspaper was ascribed to Monroe's presidency. Period known for its renewed sense of independence and national pride but encountered some tension regarding tariffs, slavery, and political power within the National Republican.

Erie Canal

Waterway that linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River; cost of shipping dropped and led to the growth of port cities along the length of the canal and its terminal points.

Five civilized tribes

The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. Adopted American ways of life including republican government and slavery.

Francis Lowell

Helped establish the first fully developed factory system in textile manufacturing. Went to England to learn the tricks of the trade dealing with power looms. Formed the Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813.

Gibbons v. Ogden

Court case of 1824 ruled that New York couldn't issue a monopoly to a steamboat company because it was in direct conflict with the commerce clause of the Constitution, which gave the federal government control of interstate commerce. Marshall continued to overturn laws and provision made by states to challenge the authority of the federal government.

Great American Desert

A name given by report from Major Stephen S. Long who encouraged the misleading view that the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains were unfit for cultivation or settlement.

Henry Clay

Called for immediate recognition of the new republics in Latin America and expressed the belief that the U.S.'s southern neighbors were just following the United State's example in their struggle for independence.

Implied powers

Also known as the Elastic clause that grants Congress powers that are not necessarily stated in the Constitution.

Interchangeable parts

Use of these in the manufacturing of small arms helped to modernize the weapons industry and also contribute to the growth of mass production.

James Fenimore Cooper

The first great American novelist Published a series of stories featuring Natty Bumppo or "Leatherstocking".

Jedediah Smith, Jim Bridger, Kit Carson, Jim Beckwourth

Folk legendary mountain men that were trappers of the West

John Jacob Astor

Founded Astor's American Fur Company on the Pacific coast.

John Quincy Adams

Secretary of State under President Monroe who believed national interest would be best served by avoiding all European political entanglements and also discouraging European intervention in the Americas-advocated unilateral action by the U.S. Mind behind the Monroe Doctrine.

King Cotton

The "king" crop in the lower South of the U.S. as a whole; became the nation's principle export commodity and brought wealth and prosperity to a belt of states from South Caroling to Louisiana.

Lancaster Turnpike

Turnpikes that connected Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

McCulloch v. Maryland

Maryland levied tax on the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States. The levy was ruled unconstitutional; the issues were- 1. Congress had the right to establish the national bank and 2. the state had the power to tax and regulate an agency or institution created by Congress. Marshall argued implied powers and said the federal government shouldn't be dependent on the states.

Missouri Compromise

Bills proposed by Henry Clay in 1820; allowed for the admission of Missouri as a slave state if Maine was admitted as a free state so as to maintain balance in the Senate. Slavery wouldn't be admitted above the 3630' line, except for MI. Accepted by North and South and lasted for 34 years. Clay called the "Great Compromiser" because he temporarily resolved sectional issue of slavery.

Monroe Doctrine

Address made by President Monroe in 1823 which became the basis of U.S. foreign policy. Policy called for "nonintervention" in Latin America and the end to European colonization.

Mountain men

Fur trappers of the West that lived dangerously. They were isolated in the forests away from common civilization. They also served as folk heroes to pioneers.

Preemption

The right of first purchase of public land. Settlers enjoyed this right even if they squatted on the land in advance of government surveyors.

Putting-out system

Investors provided households with raw materials and picked up the finished goods.

Rendezvous

Meeting place

Robert Fulton

Propelled his steamboat the Clermont up the Hudson River in 1807

Second Bank of the United States

Established by Congress in an effort the stabilize the currency and was expected to serve as a check on the state banks by forcing the resumption of specie payments. Its free lending policies contributed to the overextension of credit which led to the Panic of 1819.

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