Causes of the Dust Bowl
1) Fields left bare over winter months when the winds are highest
2) Increased exposure to erosion
Why would Island dwellers be at greatest risk?
Limited immigration; isolated evolution free from competitors, predators, & diseases. Thus fewer defenses when introduced
___ of mammals threatened by extinction
Population low but extinction less imminent
Numbers so low that extinction imminent
What are 5 extinction risk factors?
1)Small [localized] range
2)Extensive range but significantly modified by humans
4)Low reproductive success
5)Large [easily hunted]
What is FSC?
Forest Stewardship Council- certification system provides internationally recognized standards & accreditation
Science dealing with classification & identification of living things
The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
Hotspots lost at least __% of original habitat
How many hotspots are there?
34; Covering 2% of Earth's total land area
What is palm oil & what's its impact on the land?
Not native to asia; Most productive oil; Seed [biofuel] 6000 L/ha; Asia's rain forests are being converted to palm oil [Malaysia, Indonesia, & Thailand] ingredient in food, engine lubricants, & cosmetics
How does the FAO define a forest?
Land which has greater than 10% forest cover and is not used for agricultural or urban purposes
Deforestation occurs at a rate of ___ annually
50,000 square miles [roughly the size of England]
What is the main cause of deforestation?
Human Activity [Poverty]
WHat was the 1st agricultural revolution?
Neolithic Revolution [10,000 BCE]
What are Villages?
Groups of farmers living in homes
What are towns?
Social division of work, not all inhabitants are farmers, accumulation of wealth now possible
Where did city-states 1st appear?
Mesopotamia [3000 BCE]
Neolithic Revolution [10,000 BCE- 1700 CE]
Most of major crops & domesticated animals were established within first thousands of agriculture
(1450-1700) What came from the New World?
Potatoes, maize, beans, & squash
(1450-1700) What came from Asia?
What did Europeans bring to the New World?
Wheat, onions, sugar, & domesticated animals
What was the 2nd food revolution?
[18-19th century] British Agricultural Revolution
What was thought to have facilitated the Industrial Revolution?
The British Agricultural Revolution
Shift from ___ to enclosed farms whereby land was owned by individuals because of advances in farming mechanization
Open field system
Passage of General Inclosure Act 
Process caused unemployment for many & increased dependency on Poor Law [Social Safety Net]
What was the 1st iron plough to become commercially successful & why?
Rotherham Plough - lighter & easier to pull them the other ploughs
Scots Plough 
Increased efficacy of plow & decreased strain on plough team
Threshing Machine 
Separated grain from stalks, drove many subsistence farmers from the countryside to the cities to seek other unemployment
Who made first advances in agricultural mechanization- seed drill?
Jethro Tull also invented?
Technology advances like ___ changed the face of farming?
Steam powered engine
What was the 3rd agricultural revolution?
Modern-Farming/ Green Revolution
Modern-Farming/ Green Revolution Characteristics
1)Increase use in mechanization [tractors/threshers/combines]
2)Hybridized seeds-traditional cross breeding for desired genes
Farming is __% of total US workforce
In the US, farms have dropped from ___ to ___
6.8 million to 2.3 million
What is the 4th agricultural revolution?
Genes are now able to be exchanged between ___?
Plants, animals, & bacteria
Cross breeds between different plants
Hawaiian papaya farmers in 1990's
[Put genes into the chromosomes] fighting an insect borne virus, decimating the state's 2nd largest fruit crop, traditional bioengineering failed, researches took genes from the virus & put it into the fruit
What was the first genetically engineered product?
Tomato, hit the market in 1994
As of 2003, there were ___ genetically engineered foods FDA says are safe
Grocery Manufacturers , estimated that __% of all processed foods contain materials from GMOs
How many acres of GMOs are there in the US [as of 2003]
100 million acres
___ countries grew GMO crops commercially in 2000
13 [US=68%, China=1%, Argentina=23%, Canada=7%]
Soybeans & corn made up ___% of total GMO crops harvested in the world
Arguments against GMOs
2)Human health risks
Arguments for GMOs
2)Vitamin fortified-golden rice enriched with beta-carotene
3)Phytoremediation-using poplar trees to to clean up heavy metals in soil & ground water
GMOs, Federal Government & Testing
No federal statutes requiring testing but a "voluntary" consultation during the development process
Who is the "Father of the Green Revolution"
Norman Borlaug [presidential medal of freedom, nobel Laureate, congressional gold medal winner]
Where do most of our calories come from?
99.7% come from terrestrially grown sources
What does it mean to be a slow food?
An eating movement trying to support local farming. Eat food less than 500 miles away & only eating seasonal food, tends to work based upon where you live
What is the leading cause of the loss of biodiversity?
What is a buffer zone?
Associated with edge communities, one way to address habitat loss is to set up buffer zones, keep a pristine forest with a zone around it where humans can get resources without going into deep forest, humans CAN'T live here
What is a corridor?
increase connectivity between protected zones
What role do forests have in the global carbon cycle?
Take up atmospheric CO2 & turn it into an organic source- process called carbon sequestration CO2 + H2O + hv --> C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O
What is the Dead Zone & how is it caused?
What= the area that has dissolved oxygen levels so low it can't support life
Where= Gulf of Mexico
Why= the way we farm, sediment comes down Mississippi river & gets dumped into the gulf, fertilizers are in it, floats around
What was the 1st patented life?
Anand Chakrabarty- General Electric scientist patented an oil-eating microbe
Who decided life could be patented?
American Supreme Court
What is a seed bank?
In case of a catastrophe, America has warehouse with seeds from every species [almost]
Why was the patenting of life so controversial?
The voting public never had to say in it & corporations own what's available to you as a food consumer
What is a hot spot?
An area of extreme conservation risk, habitat is rapidly being destroyed by an encroaching human population. An area of high human interaction, high biodiversity & high # of endemic species
How much land is arable?
Less than 10% of the total surface of the Earth [cultivating almost 50% of that]
What is island biogeography theory?
The larger the conservation area & the closer the areas are, the better it is. Healthiest islands are big & close to the mainland
Looks at the # of different, distinct species, quantifies how many unique species there are but says nothing about the health of the populations
Whether the populations are near extinction or over populated. Calculates the level of diversity in an area
What does it mean to be organic?
1)No GMOs, radiation, sewage sludge in production
2)Generally natural substances are allowed
3)No conventional pesticides-petroleum based fertilizers
4)livestock must be fed organic feed & access to outdoors
What is fair trade?
Social movement that helps growers in developing worlds get a fair price for the crops they grow- coffee, cocoa, sugar, tea, bananas, honey, cotton, and wine
What is CSA?
(Community Supported Agriculture) Participants pay for a "share" of crops, funds farmer(s), shares of crops given (bi)weekly failure of crops not as devastating to farmer
How many people are undernourished?
850 million people
How much arable land is lost a year?
37,000 square miles
Who produces 1/2 of all meat?
China, US, & Brazil
What are 7 factors influencing infiltration?
1)Texture [sand,silt, clay]
2)Crust [Crytogamic crust for ex. can help desert plants retain water]
4)Aggregation & Structure
What is infiltration?
The process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil
How does the way we farm impact water quality in the Gulf of Mexico?
When we remove vegetation, soil is available for erosion--> washes into Mississippi river --> Gulf of Mexico
Which soil texture would have the fastest infiltration & which would have the slowest?
Available Water Capacity
the range of available water that can be stored in soil & be available for growing crops
Permanent Wilting Point
The minimal point of soil moisture the plant requires not to wilt
The amount of soil moisture or water content held in soil after excess has been drained away, bulk water content contained in soil
Forest area makes up ___ of total land cover
30.3% [4 billion hectares]
More than 1/2 of the world's forests are found in ___?
Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, US, China [10 countries account for 2/3 world's forest]
___% of the world's forests are publicly owned
Movement of a body of water's trophic status in the direction of increasing plant biomass by the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrate & phosphates, through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system- hypoxia can occur