Psychology midterm

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Muscle, fat

By the end of early childhood, boys have more _______, whereas girls have more __________

Ethnic Origin and nutrition

the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide.

Smaller

During early childhood, on average girls are slightly ____________.

Ethnic differences

When looking at the heights and weights of preschool children, we know that there are ___________.

Shorter

Melinda smokes cigarettes during pregnancy. Because of her smoking, we would expect her child, when preschool age, to be slightly __________ in length than if melinda had not smoked.

Shorter

Children of parents who smoke, physically abused children and children who live in rural settings are more likely to be _________ than their peers.

Pituitary Gland

Brent was unusually short. He is receiving hormone treatments to increase his growth. Brent probably has a problem with:

Cephalocaudal Pattern

The rate of growth in the brain during early childhood shows an example of the __________ __________ of development

Growth Hormone Deficiency

Growing at a normal pace requires regular release of hormone from pituitary gland. Lack or insufficient production of this hormone causes a condition called:

Brain and head

Rita is 3 years old. What part of her body is growing the fastest.

Gross motor skills

Jungle gyms, slides and climbing equipment should be available to help young children develop:

Gross motor skills: Fine motor skills

as Hopping: jumping

Superior spatial abilities

Why do left-handers excel at architectural abilities?

fat

Vanessa lead the typical American life. Her parents are very busy with work and getting everything done at home. They often eat fast food, and even when they make dinner at home, they tend to eat alot of pizza, hamburgers, and other foods that are quick and easy to fix. With this lifestyle, developmentalists would be especially concerned that Vanessa is consuming too much...

Environmental an genetics

What is the BEST explanation for handedness

Minimum number of calories used when a person is inactive

In the nutritional area, the basal metabolism rate (BMR) reflects the:

35%

How much of a child's diet should contain fat?

Self-esteem

Being overweight is negatively correlated with:

Increase in immunization

Why have the deaths of children under the age of 5 years dramatically decreased in the US since 1950

Smoking

If a mother wants to reduce the risk that her child will develop asthma, pneumonia, or bronchitis, she should stop....

Cancer

A preschool child in the US is MOST likely to die from:

Accidents

The leading cause of death in young children in the US is...

Poverty

The 2003 UNICEF report on the state of the world's children show that 35 nations have fewer deaths of children younger than 5 years of age than the US. The major causes of this includes:

Reducing poverty, improving nutrition, sanitation, education, and health services.

According to the textbook, many deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by:

Animism

A young child may be heard saying, "That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down." The child's belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to:

AIDS

An overwhelming worldwide health concern in the last decade has been death due to:

Eighteen months

At approximately what age does self-recognition first take place

A social activity

According to Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) learning is:

Greater feelings of guilt

Authoritarian parents who have alot of rules that restrict their children's behavior lend to move children toward:

Reason

Little Markie is driving his parents crazy with all his questions. He asks why everything is the way it is, then why things are not some other way. His parents might not be comforted to know that such questioning inflects Markie's increasing ability to:

Vygotsky; Piaget

________ differs from _________ is how he stresses the relative importance of other people for cognitive development to occur

thinking

Latoya talks to herself frequently, especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Vygotsky would say that latoya is using private speaking to organize and regulate...

15 to 30 seconds

In short-term memory, individuals retain information for..

Memories of Children

Can be reshaped by stories told to them about their earlier experiences

3

Most children have no memory of events that happened before the age of:

Memories are susceptible to suggestion

6 year old Tracy was a witness to a robbery and has been asked to testify at trial. The defense will argue that her testimony is invalid because her:

Better strategies

Why does memory improve as children get older?

4

At what age can children understand false beliefs?

emphasis on achievement

In general, critics of contemporary kindergarten believe that many kindergarteners place too much:

quality standards

The most frequent criticism of early childhood programs is that they do not all meet:

Not child centered

The kindergarten director says "we believe that there is a specific set of skills children need to do well in the first grade, and we make sure the children learn those skills in our kindergarten. We spend as little time as possible on social and physical things and concentrate on teaching them the facts. If children aren't keeping up, we provide them with extra opportunities to practice until they learn the material. This program is:

graduation rates

early preschool intervention programs for disadvantaged children are positively associated with:

Play opportunities

If you were to advise parents about the preschool program they should select for their children, which allow children plenty of:

Academic success

A major difference between Japanese and American preschools is the emphasis on

2 to 3 inches

On average, how much do children grow per year during middle and late childhood

Sitting still

What is the MOST fatiguing to an elementary school child?

Slower and smaller

Compared with the earlier preschool and later adolescent years, physical changes in middle and late childhood are ________ and ____________.

Gross motor skills will not be appropriately developed

Caleb, an elementary school child, is not very physically active. Which of the following may result from his inactivity?

fine motor skills

During middle and later childhood, girls usually excel at

gross motor skills

During middle and later childhood, boys usually excel at

Motor vehicle accident

What is the most common cause of death for the child in middle childhood?

Cancer

second leading cause of death in children

leukemia

Which type of cancer is most prevalent in children?

soft drinks, television, and snacks

Recent research has revealed what kind of eating patterns as contributing to an increase in obesity from age 2 through adulthood.

75%

What percentage of children who are obese at age of 12 will also be obese as adults

Learning disabilities

Among children who receive special education services, the most common reason why they need these services is:

Boys

Research indicates what gender has the higher risk of having a learning disability?

Read

The most common problem that characterizes children with learning disabilities is the inability to:

They have to sit still and concentrate

In children with ADHD, the disorder is initially diagnosed sometime during the first 3 grades of elementary school this is because:

94-142

A free and appropriate education for all children is what public laws?

85%

About what percentage of children with ADHD are treated with medication such as Ritalin

Individual education plan

The individual with disabilities education act (IDEA) requires that students with disabilities receive:

Inclusion

Jacob is a third-grader and has a disability that had caused him to be separated from his peers during the school day. Just recently Jacob has been moved to the regular third grade classroom. What is this change called?

IQ measurement

Mental age (MA) divided by his or her chronological age (CA) and multiplied by 100

Push children to learn too much too soon

A major criticism Piaget made of American parents is that they

Compare themselves with peers

In terms of self-understanding, children in late childhood are MORE likely than children in early childhood to..

Children have highest self esteem

when a child performs competently on a task that they care about they:

Physical characteristics

During the elementary years, a child's self-understanding includes increasing references to follow

self-esteem

achievement is positively correlated with:

Teaching a child a new skill

which of the following is an example of improving a child's self-esteem through achievement

Teach her to cope with problem

Peter and Lynette want to help their daughter develop high self-esteem. What should they do?

Emotional intelligence

John understands that his mother is angry with him because he did not take out the trash. He has developed:

Watch repeated news footage

Nelson is trying to help his son deal with the World Trade Center tragedy of September 11, 2001. One strategy he should not implement is allow his child to:

Perspective of others

What does Kohlberg emphasize as important in moral development

Lawrence Kohlberg

______ __________ studied moral development by classifying children's solutions to difficult moral problems

External to internal control

According to Lawrence Kohlberg, moral development proceeds from:

Universal ethical principles

The greatest degree of internalization of moral standards is to be found in a stage of moral development called:

Justice perspective

Carol Gilligan reports that males tend to use ________ __________ when making moral judgments

Care perspective

Carol Gilligan reports that females tend to use a ________ _______ when making moral judgements

Moral belief doesn't predict moral behavior

More than 80% of the respondents to a survey said that buying a stolen tv is wrong. Yet 50% admitted they would buy a stolen tv if it was guaranteed they would not be cause. This indicates:

preschool

The results of the 1998 study by Eisenberg and Fabes indicates that prosocial behavior in school children develops in:

Girls; boys

________ perceive themselves as being more prosocial as compared to _____.

Achievement motivated

Which of the following characteristics is ascribed to males according to our common stereotypes?

Males than females

Rates of death, physical ailments, and mental disorders are higher for:

twice

Research indicates men are ______ as likely to develop heart disease.

Boys; girls

_____ are more physically aggressive, whereas _____ are more verbally aggressive

self-regulation

Boys are much more likely than girls to be behaviorally disruptive in the classroom. This is because boys show less:

real boys

In Pollack's book _______ ______ argues that society does not actually have to encourage boys to have sensitivity

Family home

a traditional, culturally based expectation of an Asian female is that she maintains the:

less time with them

As children grow older, parents tend to __________________________, especially in less-educated families.

discussion

Which of the following would probably be the MOST developmentally appropriate type of discipline tactic for an 11 year old?

Time to divorce and remarry

Why are there more elementary and secondary school children living in step families than there are infants and preschool children. It takes

Children from woman's previous marriage

Most stepfamilies include

20%

what percent of children in stepfamilies show adjustment problems

adolescents

which children will have the most difficult time with remarriage?

3 to 6 o'clock problem

refers to the social behavioral consequences of leaving children home alone after school

loneliness

Children who are bullied have increased feelings of:

Bullies

tend to have authoritarian parents

Rejected; Neglected

________ children often have more psychosocial difficulties later in life than ________.

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