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neurons

cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks

cell body

the part of the neuron that coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive

dendrite

the part of the neuron that receives info from other neurons and relays it to the cell body

axon

the part of the neuron that transmits info to other neurons, muscles, or glands

myelin sheath

an insulating layer of fatty material

glial cells

support cells found in the nervous system

sensory neurons

neurons that receive info form the external world and convey this info to the brain via the spinal cord

motor neurons

neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement

interneurons

neurons that connect sensory neurons or other interneurons

resting potential

the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane

action potential

an electric signal that is conducted along a neuron's axon to a synapse

refractory period

the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated

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