The World Economic Forum held in Davos Switzerland in 2009 had as its theme:
"Shaping the Post-Crisis World"
Which country experienced the greatest growth rate in gross domestic product between 2000 and 2006?
When examining trends in the globalization of human capital, Forrester Research, and several other researchers have predicted which effect on the U.S. labor market?
The labor market in the U.S. will decrease because more jobs will be shifted offshore
The major concern for multi-national corporations is which of the following?
Appropriability of technology
If a government were to seize the assets of a MNC and not provide adequate compensation to the owners, the government would be following which practice?
If an event occurred that only impacted one industry or only a few companies in a country, the event would most likely be classified as:
A micropolitical risk event
Which event would not be considered a political risk event?
Consumer preference toward a national company
An event which affects all foreign firms doing business in a country is called __?
A macropolitical risk event
For an MNC, what is the most important resource for current information on the political environment in the host country?
Host-country national managers
What method would most likely be successful in keeping a subsidiary and the host nation dependent on the parent corporation?
Which method of analyzing economic risk relies on a few easily measurable and timely criteria believed to reflect or indicate changes in the creditworthiness of the country?
The checklist approach
Which method of risk reduction would most likely be classified as a hedging technique?
Local debt financing
Which type of law would most likely be defined as a comprehensive set of laws organized into a code?
Emerging-market companies have yet to buy stakes in any of the large scale corporations of the developed countries.
Japan, with a growth rate in GDP of over 9% in 2003, has experienced the fastest growth rate in the world.
The globalization of human capital is predicted to decrease the number of service-sector jobs available in the U.S.
Nationalization occurs when a government takes possession of the foreign owned assets of a MNC.
Contract law plays a major role in international business transactions because of the complexities arising from differences in legal systems.
An advantage of quantitative systems of political risk assessment is the use and primary reliance on past events.
Market control, as a method of keeping the subsidiary and the host nation dependent on the parent corporation, involves keeping certain key subsidiary management positions in the hands of expatriate or home-office managers.
The qualitative approach to evaluating economic risk assesses the competence of that country's leaders and analyzing the types of policies they are likely to implement.
Under civil law, past court decisions act as precedents to the interpretation of the law and common customs.
Use of patents, trademarks, trade names, copyrights, and trade secrets are the most common methods of protecting proprietary technology.
Business-to-business transactions provide the greatest opportunities for the use of e-business.
Equity sharing is a method of managing political risk that includes the initiation of joint ventures with nationals to reduce political risk.
A country's tax system influences the attractiveness of investing in that country and affects the relative level of profitability for an MNC.
Clearly, the global business environment has been changing rapidly. In particular, several regional trading blocks have been developed. List and describe the "TRIAD" of regional trading blocks. Also explain why countries are so interested in joining various trading blocks.
Triad of regional trading blocks include: (1) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); (2) European Union; and (3) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Much of today's world trade takes place within the three regional free-trade blocks. Countries are interested in joining the various trading blocks in order to increase their access to these markets. Countries within the trading blocks also benefit from the reduction or elimination of internal tariffs and customs as well as the other financial and commercial barriers. Further, as evidenced by Mexico's involvement in NAFTA, countries involved in free-trade agreements can benefit from increases in GDP, and exports.
Explain how the globalization of human capital is predicted to impact the world's labor market. Who do you predict will be the big winners and the big losers?
Globalization of Human Capital
While firms have been outsourcing manufacturing jobs for decades, they are now also outsourcing white collar jobs too.
Jobs will be moving from higher labor cost countries to lower cost ones.
Technology jobs will most likely lead the next wave of outsourcing
Big losers (in relation to number of jobs) will be U.S. and other developed countries
Big winners will include countries with low cost educated employees (e.g., India, China, Taiwan).
Political risk is one of the major areas of concern with MNCs. Explain the various types of political risk and describe the various ways that political risk can be assessed. Finally, explain the various ways of managing political risk.
Political Risks are any governmental action or politically motivated event that could adversely affect the long-run profitability or value of a firm.
Macropolitical risk event - an event that affects all foreign firms doing business in a country or region.
Micropolitical risk event - an event that affects one industry or company or only a few companies.
Examples of political risk events:
Expropriation of corporate assets without prompt and adequate compensation
Forced sale of equity to host-country nationals, usually at or below depreciated book value
Discriminatory treatment against foreign firms in the application of regulations or laws
Barriers to repatriation of funds (profits or equity)
Loss of technology or other intellectual property (such as patents, trademarks, or trade names)
Interference in managerial decision making
Dishonesty by government officials, including canceling or altering contractual agreements, extortion demands, and so forth.
Ways of Managing Political Risk:
Localization of the operation
Staged contribution strategies
Political risk insurance
Local debt financing
Why are so many people from Mexico crossing the border from Mexico to USA to find jobs despite the fact that there have been noticeable growths in Mexico's economy including an increase in GDP from $403 billion in 1993 to $893.4 billion in 2007?
MNCs displaced farming in Mexico.
Higher wages in the U.S. means that immigrants to the U.S. can send back money to their families.
Competition from China: Recently some manufacturing facilities and some service facilities migrated from Mexico to China in a race for the lowest cost operations. This caused Mexicans to migrate to USA in search for jobs.
1B. In the open systems model, which factor would be part of the operating environment?
1D. The vast majority of businesses in developed economies are multinational corporations (MNCs).
1E. An event that impacts all companies in a country would be considered a macropolitical risk event.