Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
What are the four major cell types that populate bone tissue?
Osteon (Haversian System)
The structural unit of compact bone. It is an elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone.
Central Canal (Haversian Canal)
A canal that runs through the core of each osteon, containing small blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteon's cells.
Perforating Canals (Volkmann's Canals)
Canals in long bone that lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canals and the medullary cavity.
Hairlike canals in long bone that connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal
In long bone it is located just deep to the periostem and just superficial to the endosteum, extend around the entire circumference of the diaphysis.
Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts)
Inorganic part of the bone, largely calcium phosphate, accounts for the bone's exceptional hardness.
The formation of cranial bones of the skull and clavicle. STEPS:
1. Ossification centers appear in the fibrous connective tissue membrane
2. Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane and calcifies
3. woven bone and periosteum form
4. Lamellar bone replaces woven bone, just deep to the periosteum, Red Marrow appears.
The process uses hyaline cartilage formed earlier as models or patterns for bone construction.
Primary Ossification center
The center of the hyaline cartilage shaft where the formation of a long bone typically begins.
proliferation zone, hypertrophic zone, calcification zone, ossification zone
What are the four stages in the growth of long bone at the epiphyseal plate?
In adult skeletons, bone deposit and bone resorption occur both at the surface of the periosteum and the surface of the endosteum.
By the use of osteoclasts, that move along the bone surface and break done bone matrix.
Hematoma, fibrocartilaginous callus, bony callus, bone remodeling
What are the four major stages in bone repair?
When bone breaks incompletely. Only one side of the shaft breaks, the other side bends.
A bone disease where there is an excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption.
A bone imbalance that encompasses a number of disorders in which the bones are inadequately mineralized.