French and Indian War
Phase 1: (1754-1756) Colonist are by themselves. Little British assistance. Indians ransack colonial towns.
Phase 2: (1756-1758) British assert control. Exploit colonial resources such as shelter. Americans never asked for the support and are shocked by the lewdness of the British Soldiers.
Phase 3: (1758-1760) Colonies regain local autonomy. British realize colonies are agitated. Allow colonies to be in charge of enlistment. Send more troops to support.
Treaty of Paris
(1763) French are officially eliminated from the continent! Huge tension between French and British.
Post French Indian War
(post 1763) Massive debt crisis for British. Colonists feel that they contributed at least a third of the expenses. British feel opposite. British keep standing army of 10,000 in the colonies.
-Resentment towards the British by Puritans who feel that the British are immoral and lowly.
-Colonists wished to manage their own affairs.
(1763) British establish a line down the Appalachian Mountain Range that delineated between the western lands that the British and the colonists had gained in the war and the already populated eastern land. British ordain that the colonists not cross the line due to Indian attacks despite that they own the land.
(1763): Cuts molasses duty in half. The Parliament set up courts in the colonies to actually enforce this three pence tax as the colonists never paid prior.
(1765): Revenue stamps were to be attached to printed matter such as newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs, bonds, leases, deeds, licenses, insurance policies, ship clearances, college diplomas, dice and playing cards. All merchants, planters, and lawyers were affected by this tax and began to believe that they should not be taxed without proper representation.
(1765): Required colonies to supply British troops to provide shelter and food for British soldiers.
(1766): Parliament repeals the stamp act, however declares that they enable full power to make laws binding the colonies.
(1767): Taxed glass, lead, paint, paper, and Tea! The new tax was issued because the colonists refused to follow the Quartering Act. In addition the tax suspended the New York assembly and established customs commissioners.
(1770): 5 dead, 8 wounded. British soldiers shot fire after serious provocation from the colonists. Heavily publicized by Paul Revere as a large-scale manslaughter.
(1770): Parliament repealed all the Townshend duties except for the tea tax in order to show authority.
Committees of Correspondence
(1772): Sam Adams inspires committees to be made. Keeps resentment simmering. Unifies the colonies. Tell colonies to begin mobilizing.
(1773): Britain cuts out the middle man in America to sell tea. Although this efficiently lowers the price of tea for the colonists, all merchants that once bought this tea and sold it were screwed. Inspires more contempt for Britain.
Boston Tea Party
(1773): Patriots along with Sam Adams dress up as Native Americans and board a docked ship packed with tea. They dump 342 chests of tea over the side of the ship in protest.
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
(1774): Shut down Boston Port until the colonists payed for tea. Redcoats from now on will not have a jury but be tried in England. Stricter enforcement of the Quartering Act. Denies the colonists to have a town meeting without the governor's consent. Nor more elections for government officers, which would be appointed by England.
1st Continental Congress
(1774): 55 delegates congregated in Philadelphia.
- Called for economic sanctions against British commerce.
- Tells colonies to start mobilizing militias.
- Declaration of American Rights:
- Parliament can only regulate imperial affairs.
- Parliament cannot control internal colonial affairs.
- Each assembly could determine the need for troops within their own province.
- Sent petition to King for relief.
- England declared colonies in state of rebellion!
Lexington and Concord
(1775): 1st battle of Revolution. British head to Concord to destroy weapons depot by way of Lexington. Paul Revere and William Dawes warn Lexington that 700 British soldiers were coming. By dawn, there is a American militia of seventy to fight the British. 250 English dead, 100 Americans dead.
2nd Continental Congress
(1775): Same day Ethan Allen and Green Mountain Boys capture Fort Ticonderoga in New York under Benedict Arnold. Elect George Washington to be general and commander-in-chief.
Battle Bunker Hill
(1775): Took place on Breed's Hill. British stormed up the hill three times and retreated twice. Although they captured the hill in the end, they lost 1,054 whereas the colonists only lost 400.
Olive Branch Petition and Declaration of Necessity of Taking Up Arms
(1775): Both written by John Dickinson, they professed loyalty to George III and begged him to restrain hostilities. King ignores this plea and declares colonists to be in rebellion.
(1776): Written by Thomas Paine who is a revolutionary rhetorician.
- Attacks allegiance to monarchy.
- Americans should consult their own interests,abandon George III, and declare their independence.
After three months 100,000 copies were circulating. Finalizes resentment towards the British and desire for independence.