bio2 lab practical 2: flowers

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peduncle

flower stalk

receptacle

the part of the flower stalk that bears the floral organs; located at the base of the flower

sepals

the lowermost or outermost whorls of structure, which are usually leaflike and protect the developing flower; the sepals collectively constitute the Calyx

petals

whorls of structures located inside and usually above the sepals; may be large and pigmented(in insect=pollinated flowers) or inconspicuous(in wind-pollinated plants). the petals collectively
the corolla.

androecium

the male portion of the plant that rises above and inside the petals; consists of stamens, filament and anther, inside the anthers are pollen gains.

gynoecium

the female portion of the plant that rises above and inside the androecium; consists of one or more carpels, ovary, style, stigma ovary contains ovules that contain the megagametophyte/embryo sac and contains female gamest

radially symmetrical

regular flowers, tulips, radiate from the center of the flower.

bilaterally symmetrical

irregular flowers, snapdragons, parts are different

sporphyte

produces haploid spores by meiosis then develops into the gametophyte by mitosis and cellular differentiation.

sporogenesis

production of spores in the sporphyte by meiosis

gametogenesis

production of gametes by gametophytes

microsporogenesis

production of microspores within microsporangia of a flower's anthers via meiosis of microspore mother cells (microsporocytes)

pollen grains

microgametopyhtes

tube nucleus

control growth of the pollen tube

generative nucleus

replicate to produce two sperm nuclei

Megasporogenesis

production of megaspores; it occurs in the sporangia of the flower ovary by meiosis of megaspore mother cells(megasporocyte)

megagametogenesis

megaspores develop into megagametopyets called ovule and have 2 integuments coverings

double fertilization

one sperm nucleus fuses with teh egg to form the diploid (2n) zygoate, and the other sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid (3n) nucleus. In angiosperms.

seed

mature ovule that includes a seed coat, a food supply, and an embryo. ex)Capsella (a dicot)

cotyledons

stored nutrients of embryo's absorbed endosperm

proembryo stage

zygote divides and left with basal cell, suspensor, and 2 celled proembryo.

suspensor

column of cells that pushes the embryo into the endosperm.

globular stage

radially symmetrical

heart-shaped stage

bilateral symmetry of two cotyledons. root and shoot meristem appear.

torpedo stage

cotyledons and root axis elongate . procambial tissue appears to develop into vascular tissue later.

mature embryo

has large bent cotyledons on sides of the stem apical meristem. radicle forms roots later, bypocotyl is between apical and radicle.

micropyle

bean. small opening on the surface of the seed through which the pollen tube grew.

hilum

bean. an adjacent, elliptical area at which the ovule was attached to the ovary.

cotyledon

bean. food for the embryo

scutellum

corn. cotyledon; this structure helps absorb the endosperm.

coleoptile

corn. sheath enclosing shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia of grass embryos

coleorhiza

corn. sheath enclosing embryonic root of grass embryo

fruit

mature, ripened ovary plus any associated tissue.

pericarp

outer wall of fruit composed of an exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp

pea

legume fruit

tomato

berry fruit

strawberry

aggregate fruit

apple

prome fruit

strobili

cones of gymnopserm

angyosperm

flowering

gymnosperms

seeds plants like ferns, but unlike ferns they are heterosporous; produce two types of spores:mega and microspores. cycadophyta, ginkgophyta, coniferophyta, and gnoteophyta.

pine

sporphyte stage dominates

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