Nutrition set 1 Study Guide

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Nutrition Concepts and Controversies 12ed Ch 1, 2, 3, 11, 4, 5

1. decreased bone density.

Effects of physical activity on the body include all of the following except:
1. decreased bone density.
2 reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases.
3 faster wound healing.
4 increased lean body tissue.

b) completion of a medical degree.

Characteristics of a legitimate and qualified nutrition expert include
a) graduation from a university after completing a program of dietetics.
b) completion of a medical degree.
c) use of the term nutritionist after the individuals name.
d) completion of a certificate in nutrition from a correspondence program.

3 our genetic inheritance determines the influence nutrition will have on disease prevention.

When considering the effect of genetics and nutrition on chronic disease development in individuals

1 we need to understand that all individuals have the same genetic makeup.
2 sound nutrition practices have the greatest influence on prevention of all chronic diseases.
3 our genetic inheritance determines the influence nutrition will have on disease prevention.
4 scientists have recently been able to identify all the genetic connections to chronic disease.

4 adequacy.

4) One of the characteristics of a nutritious diet is that the foods provide enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy. This principle of diet planning is called

1. variety.
2 balance.
3 moderation.
4 adequacy.

b. laboratory study

Which of the following research designs are among the most powerful tools in nutrition research because they show the effects of treatments?

a. case study
b. laboratory study
c. intervention study
d. a and b
e. b and c

1. cultural tradition

Your family always has rice available at every meal, just as it has been for every generation. This is an example of ____ of food selection.

1. cultural tradition
2 emotional comfort
3 availability
4 social pressure

T

Malnutrition includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrients, any of which can be detrimental over time.

True
False

2 determine what the nutrient and dietary intakes of the population in our country are.

The main purpose of the national research projects, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), is to

1 determine what types of foods are available in grocery stores and supermarkets.
2 determine what the nutrient and dietary intakes of the population in our country are.
3 identify what foods have been imported from other countries.
4 set regulations for food intake in individuals of different ages.

2 they decrease the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.

8) Phytochemicals found in foods are important because

1 they increase the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.
2 they decrease the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.
3 they are considered to be essential nutrients.
4 they are a new category of vitamins.

4 functional foods

Which of the following terms was coined in an attempt to identify foods that might lend protection against chronic diseases by way of the nutrients or nonnutrients they contain?

1 natural foods
2 organic foods
3 basic foods
4 functional foods

2 a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.

In nutrition, the word essential means

1. necessary for good health and proper functioning of the body.
2 a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.
3 that the body can manufacture the nutrient from raw materials.
4 compounds the body can make for itself.

1 more difficult to plan a nutritious diet.

The abundance of types of foods today has made it

1 more difficult to plan a nutritious diet.
2 much easier to select nutritious foods for a diet.
3 healthier to combine nutraceuticals for disease prevention.
4 easier to balance a deficient diet with functional foods.

Processed

Foods that have been subjected to any process such as addition of additives, milling, or cooking are called _____ foods.

Urban Legend

A false story has circulated for several years on the Internet about the chickens used by a popular national fried chicken chain. It claims that the chickens used by the company have been genetically modified to have no heads, beaks, or feet and are kept alive with feeding tubes. This is an example of:

Moderation

A certain amount of fiber in foods contributes to the health of the digestive tract, but too much fiber leads to nutrient losses. The characteristic of diet planning illustrated by this statement is called:

7

One gram of alcohol is equal to _____ calories.

True

Malnutrition includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrients, any of which can be detrimental over time.

Fruits

Data from a national survey showed that on a given day two-thirds of our population consume inadequate:

Intervention Study

Scientists have developed a new type of margarine containing plant ingredients they think will lower blood cholesterol levels in people who use the margarine. They want to test this by having some people use the new margarine for a while and then compare their cholesterol levels with those of a group of people who use regular margarine. This is an example of what type of research design?

24%

A food provides 8 grams of fat and 300 total calories. What is the percentage of calories as fat in this product?

c. infomercial

2. A popular star has a half-hour television show describing a new dietary supplement that she claims has made her much healthier. During the show she describes how she has seen improvement in her skin, hair, and eyesight without going to the doctor. This is an example of
a. an advertorial.
b. an urban legend.
c. an infomercial.
d. anecdotal evidence.

c. the information needs to be checked for scientific validity and accuracy

An advertisement for a new performance-enhancing supplement is on the Internet. What can you assume about the advertisement for the supplement?
a. It is providing accurate information because all information on the Internet has been screened
b. the information is valid because the ad describes the research that was done in the company´s lab
c. the information needs to be checked for scientific validity and accuracy
d. testimonials from individuals who have used the supplement prove that it works

a. It is being made by an advertiser who is paid to make claims.

4. You can tell a claim about nutrition is suspect if it bears the following characteristics:
a. It is being made by an advertiser who is paid to make claims.
b. The evidence used to support the claim is from a university laboratory.
c. It appears in a scientific journal that is peer reviewed.
d. It is being made by a public health nutritionist.

a. the American Dietetic Association.

5. The credential "R.D." displayed by a dietitian´s name indicates registration with:
a. the American Dietetic Association.
b. the American Association of Nutrition and Dietary Consultants.
c. the International Academy of Nutritional consultants.
d. the American Society for Clinical Nutrition.

b. Completion of a medical degree.

6. Characteristics of a legitimate and qualified nutrition expert include:
a. graduation from a university after completing a program of dietetics.
b. Completion of a medical degree.
c. Use of the term "nutritionist"
d. Completion of a certificate in nutrition from a correspondence program

...

1. Which of the following have the scientists who have been doing research on phytochemicals in foods found to be true?
a. their health benefits in people have been known for many years
b. there are only a few compounds found in foods that can be considered phytochemicals
c. they are just as effective in a supplement form as n food form
d. research has shown the possible health benefits in cell and animal studies

a. whole foods

2. Which of the following is the best and safest source of phytochemicals?
a. whole foods
b. supplements
c. herbal remedies
d. organic foods

b. include a variety of fruits and vegetables containing phytochemicals in your diet

3. As more research is showing the possible benefits of phytochemicals for health, the best way to approach consuming them in your diet is to:
a. avoid an increase of foods containing them until more research has shown benefits
b. include a variety of fruits and vegetables containing phytochemicals in your diet
c. Find supplements that can give you concentrated doses for health benefits
d. Read supplement labels to find out which claims state the best health benefits

...

4. Which of the following is a property of manufactured functional foods?
a. they are a good regular addition to the diet to make up for inadequate nutrient intakes
b. they have been proven to be beneficial in improving health
c. they have not been shown to pose any health risks with regular consumption
d. they may act more like a drug than a food in promoting health

a. tomatoes

5. One of the sources of lycopene is:
a. tomatoes
b. soy products
c. garlic
d. flaxseed

will increase as the exercise activity increases.

A woman who has begun a new exercise program to keep herself healthy will need to consider that her discretionary calorie allowance:

2,000

The percentages of the Daily Values on food packages are given in terms of a person requiring _____ calories each day.

...

Foods that provide zero discretionary calories:

T

The exchange list system highlights the fact that many meats contain more calories from fat than from protein.

T

The primary difference between recommendations for nutrient intakes and values set for energy intake is that the value for energy intake is not generous.

Estimated Average Requirement

Which of the following establishes population-wide average requirements used by nutrition policymakers?

have a serving of cooked carrots with her meal in addition to her salad

A 51-year-old sedentary woman still has some discretionary calories available for her evening meal. The best choice for her to select for that meal would be to:

good source

Any food providing 10% or more of the Daily Value for a nutrient is considered to be a _____ source of the nutrient.

Daily Values

The bottom portion of the Nutrition Facts panel on a food package:

B. Daily Minimum Requirements (DMR)

1. The nutrient standards in use today include all of the following except:
A. Adequate Intakes (AI)
B. Daily Minimum Requirements (DMR)
C. Daily Values (DV)
D. (a) and ©

D. all of the above

2. The Dietary Reference Intakes were devised for which of the following purposes?
A. to set nutrient goals for individuals
B. to suggest upper limits of intakes, above which toxicity is likely
C. to set average nutrient requirements for use in research
D. all of the above

C. black beans

3. According to the USDA Food Guide, which of the following may be counted among either the meats or the vegetables? chicken
A. chicken
B. avocados
C. black beans
D. potatoes

D. All of the above

4. The USDA Food Guide recommends a small amount of daily oil from which of these sources?
A. olives
B. nuts
C. vegetable oil
D. all of the above

A. Daily Values

5. Which of the following values is found on food labels?
A. Daily Values
B. Dietary Reference Intakes
C. Recommended Dietary Allowances
D. Estimated Average Requirements

T

6. The energy intake recommendation is set at a level predicted to maintain body weight.

F

7. The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are for all people, regardless of their medical history.

F

8. People who choose not to eat meat or animal products need to find an alternative to the USDA Food Guide when planning their diets.
T F

F. Vit A, C, calcium, and iron

9. By law, food labels must state as a percentage of the Daily Values the amounts of vitamin C, vitamin A, niacin, and thiamin present in food.
T F

T

10. To be labeled "low fat," a food must contain 3 grams of fat or less per serving.
T F

a and b

The bottom portion of the Nutrition Facts panel on a food package:

Colon; large intestines

As food moves through the digestive tract it spends the most time in the

True

Some vitamins are stored in the body without limit, even if they reach toxic levels.

the microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them

What are the major roles of the villi and microvilli in the small intestine?

pancreatic juice which neutralizes stomach acids reaching the small intestine

The digestive juices in the digestive tract include

Bile

You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will tell an organ to send ____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.

T

Degenerative diseases are often referred to as chronic diseases.

120 over 80

Resting blood pressure should ideally be _____ or lower.

development at a later age than in men.

Heart disease in women is characterized by:

T

A deficiency or toxicity of even a single nutrient can weaken the body's defenses considerably.

remove the salt shaker from the table

A man with pre-hypertension is trying to keep his blood pressure from going higher. Which of the following dietary changes might help?

Diabetes

A friend complains of blurred vision, cravings for sweets, weakness, and excessive thirst and urination. These symptoms are suggestive of:

Milk

Which of the following animal-derived foods contains significant amounts of carbohydrates?

...

You are trying to convince someone that a low-carbohydrate diet is undesirable. Reasons you would give to support your statement include:

b and c

How would you respond to someone who states that white bread is just as nutritious as whole-wheat bread?

regular physical activity is beneficial for controlling weight and tissue sensitivity to insulin in type 2 diabetes

What would be the best advice to give for physical activity for a person with diabetes?

a and b

Which of the following foods contains about 15 grams of carbohydrate?

Body Fatness

Which of the following is most closely related to diabetes?

Glucose

Which of the following is the most-used monosaccharide inside the body?

...

Carbohydrates are essential to provide energy for the body because:

Complex Carbohydrates

are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber.
Complex carbohydrates:

a and c

In an effort to lower LDL you would tell someone to:

carries the water-soluble nutrients

Which of the following is not a function of fat in the human body?

triglycerides, which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol.

The major storage form of fats in our body is:

dismantling stored fat in fat cells and releasing components into blood.

Fat stored in the body is used as a source of energy when not enough energy is available from food. This process involves:

True

Fatty acids in foods influence the composition of fats in the body.
t or f

reduce the intake of saturated and trans fat in your diet to lower LDL levels in the blood

Which of the following would be the best dietary advice for someone who needs to lower her blood cholesterol levels?

a and c

Which of the following food groups in the USDA Food Guide always contains fat?

...

The lipoproteins LDL and HDL are important in heart disease risk because of the following properties and actions:

T

Some ground turkey and chicken products in which the skin is ground in are much higher in fats than lean beef.
t or f

2 tablespoons sour cream

All of the following provide about 5 grams of pure fat except:

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