Characteristics of water
strong H2 attraction between molecules cause; Very polar, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, dissolves all polar molecules, a universal solvent, strong cohesion property; molecules stick together
organic compounds with the same chemical formula but different structural formulas; isomers have different properties, three types; structural, geometric, and enantiomers/sterioisomers (mirror images); three isomers of C6H12O6 = glucose, galactose, and fructose
compounds containing carbon, example; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Involves an enzyme with two active sites; one for a substrate, one for a inhibitor (allosteric site); the enzyme can alternate between 2 different conformations; one active, one inactive
The enzyme has more than one site, and the substrates do not resemble each other; when 1 substrate binds to its active site, the second enzyme cannot bind; thus, no product is formed.
2 different substrates resemble each other and compete for the same active site on one enzyme. Either substrate A or substrate B binds with enzyme; not both. This inhibits the formation of a particular product by preventing one substrate from combining with an enzyme.
are organic catalysts that control the rate of reactions, lower the energy of activation, Is assisted by coenzymes(vitamins) and cofactors(minerals). Begin to denature above 40 degrees C in humans; Different enzymes function at different levels of pH - for example gastric(stomach) enzymes in acid environment and intestinal enzyme in alkaline environment - Function based on induced fit
RNA- ribonucleic acid, DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid - polymers consisting of chains of nucleotides - nucleotides consist of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base
An asymmetrical molecule=a dipole; Hydrophilic ex. Water
Non- Polar Molecule
Symmetrical or balanced molecule; hydrophobic ex. Lipid
Assist enzymes; minerals
Assist enzymes; vitamins
Consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; comprise fats, oils, waxes, and steroids; hydrophobic; made of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids; serve several functions (1) energy storage and insulation (2) structural —phospholipids are a major component of plasma membranes and protect delicate organisms (3) endocrine—some steroids are hormones
(1) Primary Structure—amino acid sequence (2) Secondary Structure—intermolecular hydrogen bonding (3) Tertiary Structure—globular proteins; 3-D shape determines specificity; due to all interactions other than H¬2 bonding (4) Quaternary Structure—consisting of more than a single chain
Consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, give quick energy empirical formula = [CH2O]n where n = # of carbons; are polymers—chains of repeating subunits of monosaccharides; monosaccharides—glucose, galactose, fructose; disaccharides—sucrose, lactose, maltose; polysacchrides—cellulose and starch (plants), glycogen, chitin (animals)
Energy required to begin a reaction.
The Molecule and enzyme works on.
Where enzyme and substrate bond.
Induced Fit Model
As a substrate enters the active site of an enzyme, it induces the enzyme to alter its shape slightly so the two bond properly. An enzyme-substrate complex is formed.