Anatomy Glossary for Test 1

Created by LBosher 

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132 terms

Anatomy

Human body structure

Biology

Study of all living things

Botany

Study of plant life

Embryology

Human anatomy before birth

Gross Anatomy-Macroscopic Anatomy

Anatomy with naked eye

Histology-Microscopic Anatomy

Anatomy with microscope

Morbid Anatomy-Pathological Anatomy

Anatomy affected by disease

Physiology

Human body function

Regional Anatomy

Anatomy one area of the body at a time
example would be a dentist would study the face and more specifically the teeth

Surface Anatomy-Topographical Anatomy

Anatomy from the outside

Systemic Anatomy

Anatomy one system at a time

Zoology

Study of animal life

List 10 Characteristics of LIfe
(or living things)

MOVEMENT-Ability to change position
RESPONSIVENESS-Reaction to changes
GROWTH-Increase in size
REPRODUCTION-Production of new organisms
RESPIRATION-Breathing
DIGESTION-Breakdown of foods into simpler forms
ABSORPTION-Passage of digested foods into simpler forms
CIRCULATION-Movement of body fluids from place to place
EXCRETION-Removal of wastes from the body
(ex: sweat, vomit, urine, feces)
ASSIMILATION-Changing of absorbed substances into other
forms
(ex: brain and big toe won't last long without
Oxygen)

Levels of organization of the body

CHEMICAL LEVEL-Atoms, Molecules, Protoplasm
CELL-Basic unit of structure and function in the human body
TISSUE-A group of similar cells arranged for the performance
of a particular function
ORGAN-A group of different tissues arranged for the perfor-
mance of a particular function
SYSTEM-A group of different organs arranged for the perfor-
mance of a particular function
ORGANISM-A group of different systems arranged to make-
up the complete body

Organ systems of the human body

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM-The heart, vessels, blood & lymph
including LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM-The alimentary canal
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM-The ductless glands
EXCRETORY SYSTEM-The kidneys, bladder, and ducts
(also the urinary system)
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM-The skin
MUSCULAR SYSTEM-The muscles
NERVOUS SYSTEM-The brain, spinal cord, and nerves
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM-The sex glands and structures
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM-The lungs, nose, breathing
SKELETAL SYSTEM-The bones
URINARY SYSTEM-The kidneys, bladder, and ducts
(also the excretory system)

Regions of the abdomen
4-region plan
(Quadrant-fourth of something)

...

Regions of the abdomen
9-region plan
(remember"E" is umbilical then work-out from "E" for the other regions)
FYI-ABC-Superior/Lateral
DEF-Medial/Lateral
GHI-Inferior/Lateral

...

Circulatory System

The heart, vessels, blood and lymph including Lymphatic System

Digestive System

The alimentary canal

Endocrine System

The ductless glands

Excretory System

How we get rid of waste in urinary system

Integumentary System

The skin

Muscular System

The muscles

Nervous System

The brain, spinal cord, and nerves

Reproductive System

The sex glands and structures

Respiratory System

The lungs, nose, and breathing

Skeletal System

The bones

Urinary System

The kidneys, bladder, and ducts or Excretory System

Anatomical Position

Body standing erect with the arms handing ata the side of the body

Anterior (Ventral)

Pertaining to, or located toward the front of the body or body part

Cadaver

A dead human body used in anatomical study

Central (Deep)

Pertaining to the center or interior of a body or body part

Distal

Located farther from the point of attachment. (used when referring to extremities)

Dorsal (posterior)

Pertaining to or located toward, the back of the body or body part.

Inferior

Pertaining to or located towards the lower portion of the body or body part.

Lateral

Pertaining to or located away from the median plane of the body or body part.

Medial

Pertaining to, or located toward the median plane of the body or body part.

Parietal

Pertaining to the WALL of a body cavity

Peripheral (Superficial)

Pertaining to the surface of the body or body part.

Posterior (Dorsal)

...

Prone

A position of the body or body parts in which it is turned face down for face back.

Proximal

Located closer to the point of attachment ( used when referring to extremities.)

Superior

Pertaining to or located toward the upper portion of the body or body part.

Supine

A position of the body or body part in which it is turned face up or face-forward.

Visceral

pertaining to the ORGANS contained within the body cavities

Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane)

An imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from side to side so as the be at right angles to the median plane

Horizontal Plane (Transverse Plane)

An imaginary plane passing through the body horizontally.

Median Plane (Midsagittal Plane)

An imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from an anterior to posterior so as to be divided the body into 2 symmetrical (equal) halves.

Sagittal Plane

An imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from anterior to posterior so as to be parallel to the medial plane

Anatomical Guide

A description of the position of a body part in relation to the position of adjacent parts.

Anatomical Limits

Anatomical Limitsà point of termination of a body part in relation to adjacent structures.

Linear Guide

An imaginary line drawn on the surface of the body to represent the approximate location of some internal structure.

Abdominal Cavity (Abdominal-Pelvic-Cavity)

Cavity within the trunk of the body before the diaphragm. Between the diaphragm and the floor of the pelvis.

Abdominal Cavity Proper

Portion of abdominal cavity that doesn't not include the pelvic cavity. Between the diaphragm and the superior border of the pelvic.

Cranial Cavity

Cavity within the cranium, containing the brain

Dorsal Cavity

Cavity that is formed jointly by the cavity within the cranium and the cavity within the spinal column.

Mediastinal Cavity (Mediastinum)

Cavity within the thorax, between the lungs.

Nasal Cavities

Cavities within the nose. Divided by a vertical nasal septum formed by the lower bone.

Oral Cavities

Buccal Cavity

Orbital Cavity

2 cavities on either side of the anterior portion of the skull, each containing an eyeball

Pelvic Cavity

Portion of the abdominal cavity found only in the pelvis.

Pericardial Cavity

Cavity within the pericardium surrounding the heart.

Peritoneal Cavity

Cavity within the sac formed by the peritoneum

Pleural Cavities

2 cavities within the thorax, one on either side of the lungs.

Spinal Cavity

Cavity within the spinal column, containing the spinal cord.

Thoracic Cavity

Large cavity within the thorax, containing the thoracic viscera.

Ventral Cavity

Large cavity contained within the trunk of the body.

Abdomen

Body area between the diaphragm and pelvis

Abdominal Cavity Proper

The portion of the abdominal cavity that does not include the pelvic cavity. (Between diaphragm and superior border of the pelvis.

Abdominal Region

Also known as the abdomen or abdomino-pelvic cavity.

Abdomino

Pelvic Cavity- The cavity below the diaphragm. (Abdomen, Abdominal Region)

Cervical Region

"Neck"

Chest

Thorax or Thoracic Region

Cranium

Surrounds the Brain

Femoral Region

"Thigh"

Head (Skull)

Consists of the face and cranium

Leg

Lower extremity (lower leg or calf)

Mediastinum

Middle section of the thorax, that is, between the two lungs.

Neck

Cervical Region

Pelvic Cavity

that portion of the abdominal cavity, found only in the pelvis.

Pericardial Cavity

The cavity within the pericardium, surrounding the heart, found within the mediastinum.

Peritoneal Cavity

The cavity within the sac formed by the peritoneum.

Pleural Cavities

The two cavities within the thorax, one on either side, containing the lungs

Skull (head)

Bones of the head.

Thoracic Region

Chest or thorax, above the diaphragm.

Thorax-

Chest or thoracic region.

Adipose

fat

Example of the Hematopoietic Tissues

Blood

Connective Tissue

The binders of the body, also serve as the framework of the body.

Endocardium

Inside layer or lining of the heart.

Endometrium

The inside lining of the uterus.

Endothelium

Inside lining of the vascular (circulatory system) system.

Epicardium
(Visceral Pericardium)

is the outer layer or covering of the heart.

Epidermis

The outer most covering of the skin (integumentary system).

Epithelial Tissue

Linings and coverings of the body. Produces secretions to lubricate and protect surfaces.

Epithelial Tissue Proper

ALL Epithelial tissue that is NOT endothelium or mesothelium.

Fascia

Sheet of connective tissue.

Glandular Epithelium

Make up the glands of the body.

Hematopoietic Tissues

Blood forming consisting of blood and lymph

Mesothelium

Outside covering of the hollow organs of the body or the lining of the body cavities. Always includes the serous membranes.

Mucous Membranes

The epithelial tissues that line those structures tat open to the outside of the body. Inside lining of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

Nerves

(Cranial nerves or spinal nerves) example of nerve tissue.

Nervous Tissue

(nerve tissue)- Makes up with the nerves of the body.

Parietal pericardium

(Pericardium) lines the pericardial sac.

Parietal pleura

Lines the rib cage.

Pericardial membranes

(Pericardium) lining of the pericardial cavity.

Peritoneum

The outside covering of most of the organs in the abdominal cavity.

Pleura

(pleural membranes) lining of the pleural cavities.

Pleural Membranes

(Pleura) lining of the pleural cavities.

Spinal Cord

Example of nerve tissue.

Spinal Nerves

or Cranial nerves make up the nerve tissue.

Tunica Adventitia
(external)

the outer, fibroelastic coat of a blood vessel or other tubular structure. (outside covering of a vessel-artery, vein or lymph vessel.)

Tunica Intima
(internal)

the inner, serous coat of an artery. (inside lining of a vessel,-artery, vein, or lymph vessel)

Visceral pericardium
(epicardium)

is the outer layer or covering of the heart....

Visceral pleura

Covers each lung

Connective Type Membranes

.erived from connective tissues.

Endometrium

Inside lining of the uterus.

Epicardium or viscerl pericardium

is the outer layer or covering of the heart.

Epithelial Type Membranes

Derived from epithelium

Membrane

Sheet of thin layer

Mesothelium

A thin expanse (layer) of tissue.

Mucous Membranes

Lining those body structures that open to the outside of the body.

Parietal pericardium
(pericardium)

lines the pericardial sac

Parietal pleura

Lines the rib cage

Pericardial membranes

lining of the pericardial cavity...

Pericardium

...

Peritoneum

The outside covering of most of the organs in the abdominal cavity.

Pleura
(pleural membranes)

lining of the pleural cavities

Serous fluid
(serum)

that acts as a lubricant to prevent friction as an organ rubs against another.

Serous Membranes-

Lining those hollow organs and cavities that DO NOT open to the outside of the body.

Visceral pericardium
(epicardium)

is the outer layer or covering of the heart.

Visceral pleura

Covers each lung

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