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Gene

A unit of heredity that consists of a segment of nucleic acid that codes for a functional unit of RNA protein

Chromosome

In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA

Chromatin

The substance of which eukaryotic chromosomes are composed

Histone

A type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells

Nucleosome

A eukaryotic structural unit of chromatin that consists of DNA wound around a core of histone proteins

Chromatid

One of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis

Centromere

The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

Cell Cycle

The life cycle of a cell

Interphase

The period of the cell cycle during which activities such as cell growth and protein synthesis occur without visible signs of cell division

Mitosis

In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm of a cell

Spindle

A network of microtubules that forms during mitosis and moves chromatids to the poles

Centrosome

An organelle that contains centrioles and is the center of dynamic activity in mitosis

Cancer

A group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells

tumor

A growth that arises from normal tissue but that grows abnormally in rate and structure and lacks a function

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