terminology: chapter 6

81 terms by rjleonard92

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antigen

substance that, when entering the body, prompts the generation of antibodies, causing an immune response

autoimmune

type of immune response by the body against its own cells or tissues

capillaries

microscopic blood vessels that connect the ends of the smallest arteries with the smallest veins of the circulatory system

hematopoiesis

production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow

immune response

defense function of the body that protects it against invading pathogens, foreign tissues and malignancies

immunodeficiency

decreased or compromised ability to fight disease or a condition resulting from a defective immune mechanism

interstitial fluid

fluid between cells and in tissue spaces

lymphocyte

type of white blood cell found in the lymph nodes, spleen, bloodstream, and lymph that functions in the body's immune system by recognizing and deactivating foreign substances

monocytes

large white blood cells formed in the bone marrow that circulate in the bloodstream and destroys pathogenic bacteria through phagocytosis

oncology

branch of medicine concerned with the study of cancerous growths

pathogens

any microorganism capable of producing disease

transfusion

collection of blood or a blood component from a donor followed by its infusion into a recipient

hematology

study of the blood and blood-forming tissues and the diseases associated with these tissues

hematologists

treat malignant and nonmalignant blood diseases

immunologist

medical specialist who studies and treats the body's defense mechanism against invasion of foreign substances that cause disease

blood

composed of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets; function is to transport oxygen and nutrients to cells and remove carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from cells

blood types

A, B, AB, O; based on the presence or absence of A or B antigens on the red blood cells; may also have Rh factors

lymphatic system

consists of lymph, vessels, nodes and the tonsils, thymus, and spleen; closely involved with the immune response; filters against foreign materials

agglutin/o

clumping, gluing

embo/o

embolus

erythyr/o

red

hem/o; hemat/o

blood

leuk/o

white

myel/o

bone marrow; spinal cord

thromb/o

blood clot

ven/o

vein

aden/o

gland

immun/o

immune, immunity, safe

lymph/o

lymph

lymphaden/o

lymph gland

lymphangi/o

lymph vessel

phag/o

swallowing, eating

splen/o

spleen

thym/o

thymus gland

-emia

blood condition

-phage

swallowing, eating

-poiesis

formation, production

-stasis

standing still

macro-

large

micro-

small

anemia

blood disorder characterized by a deficiency of red blood cell production and hemoglobin, increased red blood cell destruction, or blood loss

aplastic

failure of bone marrow to produce stem cells because it has been damaged by disease, cancer, radiation, or chemotherapy drugs; rare but serious form of anemia

pernicious

deficiency of erythrocytes due to inability to absorb vitamin B-12 into the body, which plays a vital role in hematopoiesis

sickle cell

hereditary disorder of anemia characterized by crescent or sickle shaped erythrocytes; particularly prevalent among persons of african descent

thalassemia

group of hereditary anemias caused by an inability to produce hemoglobin; usually seen in people of mediterranean origin

hemophilia

group of hereditary bleeding disorders characterized by a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of blood

leukemia

malignant disease of the bone marrow characterized by excessive production of leukocytes

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

deficiency of cellular immunity induced by infection with HIV, characterized by increasing susceptibility to infections, malignancies and neurological diseases

hodgkin disease

malignant disease characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue, splenomegaly, and the presence of unique reed-sternberg cells in the lymph nodes

HIV

retrovirus that causes AIDS

immunodeficiency disease

any of a group of diseases caused by a defect in the immune system and generally characterized by a susceptibilty to infections and chronic diseases

kaposi sarcoma

malignancy of connective tissue, including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue that is commonly fatal because the tumors readily metastasize to various organs, and is closely associated with AIDS

lymphadenitis

inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually as a result of infection

lymphedema

debilitating condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a blockage in the lymphatic system that prevents lymph fluid in the upper limbs from draining adequately

mononucleosis

acute infection caused be the epstein-barr virus and characterized by a sore throat, fever, fatigue and enlarged lymph nodes

multiple myeloma

malignant disease of bone marrow plasma cells

non-hodgkin lymphoma

any of a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue except for hodgkin disease

opportunistic infection

any infection that results from a defective immune system that cannot defend against pathogens normally found in the environment

stroke

sudden loss of neurological function, caused by vascular injury to an area of the brain; also known as CVA

systemic lupus erythematosus

chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with variable features that affect many body systems, particularly the skin, kidneys, heart and lungs

bone marrow aspiration

removal of a small amount of tissue to diagnose blood disorders, cancer, or infectious disease or to gather cells for later infusion into a patient

ELISA

test to screen blood for presence of HIV antibodies or for other disease causing substances

lymphangiography

radiographic examination of lymph glands and lymphatic vessels after an injection of a contrast medium to view the path of lymph flow as it moves into the chest region

tissue typing

technique used to determine the histocompatibility of tissues; used in grafts and transplants with the recipient's tissues and cells; aka histocompatibility testing

western blot

test to detect presence of viral DNA in the blood and used to confirm the diagnosis of AIDS as well as detecting other viruses

blood transfusion

administration of whole blood or a component, such as packed red cells, to replace blood lost through trauma, surgery, or disease

bone marrow transplant

diseased bone marrow is destroyed by irradiation and chemotherapy, then replaced from a healthy donor to simulate production of normal blood cells; used to treat aplastic anemia, leukemia, and certain cancers

lymphangiectomy

removal of a lymph vessel

anticoagulants

prevent or delay blood coagulation

immunizations

vaccinations or injection of immune globulins to induce immunity to a particular infectious disease

immunosuppressants

suppress the immune response to prevent organ rejection after transplantation or slow the progression of autoimmune disease

thrombolytics

dissolve a blood clot

vaccinations

introduction of altered antigens into the body to produce an immune response and protect against disease

antitretroviral

medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV

CD4

glycoprotein expressed on the surface of T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells

dyspnea

shortness of breath

hemoglobin

iron-containing oxygen-transport protein in the red blood cells

platelets

small, irregularly shaped clear cell fragments that gather at a wound and attempt to block the blood flow

sputum

mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways

pneumocystis pneumonia

form of pneumonia, caused by a yeast-like fungus; especially seen in people with cancer, HIV/AIDS and those who use medications that affect the immune system

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